Call to replace CH2Cl2 with less ozone depleting compounds

A popular industrial solvent, Dichloromethane is damaging the ozone layer over human populations. It’s already listed in the Montreal Protocol as a hazardous substance but it needs to be replaced with greener alternatives. While this solvent is classed as a very short lived substance, it is taking a large toll on the ozone layer.

When we combine this with the loading of atmospheric bromine and for every 5 ppt of that, we have an ozone loss of 1.3% and it could get as high as 350 ppt ( Impact of Very Short-Lived Substances on Stratospheric Bromine Loading, Jan Aschmann Doctoral Dissertation). Just the Bromine releases could wipe out 90% of the ozone layer.
“Several human-produced chlorocarbons not controlled by the Montreal Protocol are present in Earth’s atmosphere. Among the most abundant of these compounds is dichloromethane (CH2Cl2)—an industrial solvent also used as a feedstock in the production of other chemicals, among other applications 13,14. Unlike CFCs, which are virtually inert in the troposphere and have long atmospheric lifetimes (decades to centuries), CH2Cl2 is a so-called very short-lived substance (VSLS)15. Historically, VSLS have been thought to play a minor role in stratospheric ozone depletion due to their relatively short atmospheric lifetimes (typically <6 months) and therefore low atmospheric concentrations. However, substantial levels of both natural and anthropogenic VSLS have been detected in the lower stratosphere 15,16,17,18 and numerical model simulations suggest a significant contribution of VSLS to ozone loss in this region 19,20,21. Long-term measurements of CH2Cl2 reveal that its tropospheric abundance has increased rapidly in recent years 15,21,22,23. For example, between 2000 and 2012, surface concentrations of CH2Clincreased at a global mean rate of almost 8% per year, with the largest growth observed in the Northern Hemisphere (NH)21. Given that natural emissions of CH2Cl2 are small, this recent growth likely reflects an increase in industrial emissions 15. While the precise nature of the source remains poorly characterized, industrial CH2Cl2 emissions from Asia—in particular from the Indian subcontinent—appear to be growing in importance 23”   https://www.nature.com/articles/ncomms15962

These growth rates are exponential, and we seriously risk another ozone crisis in addition to the one addressed by the Montreal Protocol. In order to reduce the risk, a call to replace dichloromethane with alternatives needs to be made, and upgrade it to at least a partially-banned, controlled substance. If we do not take measures like this in the near term, we run the risk of even more dangerous UV radiation in the environment and cancelling out the benefit we see from the Montreal Protocol.

What’s worse, we run the risk of losing our ozone layer while we watch greenhouse gases and miss this very real risk which could lead to the need for an emergency oxygen airlift to replenish ozone.

Fig2-1

ncomms15962-f1

Observed trends and growth rate of surface CH2Cl2 and simulated stratospheric loading of chlorine. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5490265/

Advertisements

The Ozone Layer could cool-and weaken because of greenhouse gases

Mainly CO2 causing warming lower down is shifting the atmosphere’s thermal balance, keeping the hotter zones down and allowing the ozone layer to cool. This can weaken the ozone layer even further and the lower stratosphere is presently the thinnest of ozone. It is probably succumbing to the following chemistry from clouds that will form in the cooler temperatures:

“These clouds have two negative effects on ozone:

    • they sequester oxides of nitrogen (as nitric acid) which could react with chlorine monoxide to form the chlorine nitrate reservoir species (see immediately above), and
    • they act as an active site on which a very slow gas phase reaction can go very quickly heterogeneously (gases reacting on solid surfaces). This reaction can be viewed as:

HCl + ClONO2 —- on ice —-> Cl2 (gas) + HNO(ice)

This reaction releases molecular chlorine into the stratospheric gas phase during the austral winter and thereby helps to remove chlorine reservoir species. When the sun starts to shine on the polar stratosphere at the beginning of austral spring, this chlorine gas is photolyzed back to chlorine radicals which can THEN enter into the catalytic destruction of ozone. The result is that at the beginning of the austral spring (~ October over Antarctica) the ozone in the stratosphere is depleted to less than 20% of its winter levels.”

https://www.shsu.edu/~chm_tgc/CHM442/PSC.html

Since we see such a large seasonal reduction in Ozone over the poles, we should be concerned that the cooling and the holes will migrate further South as they enlarge because of the CO2 down below stealing the heat.  There is 6 fold the chlorine that there should be in the stratosphere-everywhere-so it is vulnerable.

If we need to, we can add oxygen to the stratosphere to increase relative oxygen levels and thus ozone. We need to watch the stratospheric clouds and prepare for further destruction to occur as CO2 levels rise and the stratosphere cools. The burning radiation from UV rays will affect plants and animals negatively, lowering health and productivity.

Part of the added oxygen would cool the earth by removing synthetic greenhouse gases as they are potent heat trapping gases that contribute 80 ppm of CO2 equivalent warming to the Earth (Ronald Prinn et al). It looks like we need to be ready to remove them and cool things down.

As air conditioning and refrigeration increases we will cause more global warming

More Leaks

The air conditioners and fridges mainly use potent greenhouse gases to function. As we collectively use more of them as the globe warms, we are in for additional leakages for a couple of reasons.

More use means more wear and tear on these units, which entails leaks from damaged seals, or from when they are emptied. The number of units is increasing as well, British Columbia Hydro and other utilities have reported record breaking electricity use this summer, due to this fact.

Already, the refrigerant gases are causing at least 78 ppm CO2 equivalents of warming as they reside at the level of the ozone layer. This brings the total to 478 ppm not 400 (R Prinn et al). where a significant number of these gases are still also tearing up the ozone layer.

The only way they are removed is when oxygen is activated and breaks the gases down with the aid of sunlight, and the less harmful remainders are scrubbed out or fall out of the sky. A couple of forms of oxygen do this for us.

In this blog bulletin we work to cover all of the aspects of doing an oxygen airlift up to the ozone layer. where it would destroy the damaging gases there and trigger some cooling as the walls stopping heat from leaving Earth are removed.  To understand more about the oxygen airlift, check out the other articles here.

Not doing an oxygen airlift is suicidal

How many degrees of demise will we allow if we have the power?

The New York Time magazine is coming out with a big spread tomorrow, August 1, entitled “Losing Earth”, about how policymakers have been aware as far back as the 1980’s that emissions were a climate problem, but did not act. Neighbors, friends, and family have now internalized how deep and steep the warming trajectory is ahead of us. We all know that we need an answer like an oxygen airlift to cleanse the culprit gases and reinstate the ozone layer at the same time.

The truth is, oxygen is the only answer we have ever had; it has been our maid and butler in the environment since it appeared on Earth. It makes toxins inert and removes unneeded junk everywhere it is applied. Its use and optimization is a staple of the environmental engineering profession for contaminated water and soil. In its forms of O2 and O3, and hydrogen peroxide it is prescribed to oxidize the vast majority of endangering pollution. Even in incineration, it is the exposure time to the oxygen of the combustion process which is maximized in standard operating procedures.

We need to take this to heart. We know we are missing oxygen at the level of the ozone layer and that synthetic greenhouse gases are building up there. Oxygen and Ozone both block ultraviolet radiation and cool the Earth, at this point we can model how well it does this by computer. We need to compel authorities to model this, and if it looks promising, they should do it. Expense, when compared to the degrees of demise we are all contemplating now, is going to be irrelevant either way.

Should we look to oxygen for its potential as a panacea as the environmental profession often does? Yes. I don’t see any other candidates. Do you?

Please share this article and teach others that oxygen is a tool to reduce global warming that triggered glaciation as known in the fossil record. It happens to be widely available, which we can produce in quantity and airlift to where it should do a lot of good.

A liquid oxygen airlift and dispersal at the lower stratosphere would address these six issues:

  1. Reduction and removal of synthetic greenhouse gases which are causing 80 ppm of CO2 equivalent warming to the planet.
  2. Ozone depleting substances removal or reduction.
  3. Thickening up the ozone layer, increasing needed UV protection by reducing the relative chlorine, fluorine and bromine fractions.
  4. Methane gas removal which appears to be becoming extremely urgent.
  5. Reduce acceleration of global warming and species extinction.
  6. Slow and may even reverse ice loss.

Six issues a non toxic oxygen airlift would address

A liquid oxygen airlift and dispersal at the lower stratosphere would address these six issues:

  1. Reduction and removal of synthetic greenhouse gases which are causing 80 ppm of CO2 equivalent warming to the planet.
  2. Ozone depleting substances removal or reduction.
  3. Thickening up the ozone layer, increasing needed UV protection by reducing the relative chlorine, fluorine and bromine fractions.
  4. Methane gas removal which appears to be becoming extremely urgent.
  5. Reduce acceleration of global warming and species extinction.
  6. Slow and may even reverse ice loss.

We have everything to gain and nothing to lose at this point as we wrestle with carbon emissions more slowly than we can afford to.

Airlift Overview

Cost: $50B, Size: 6 million Tonnes of oxygen over 5-10 years. Remember the other alternatives we have; the are toxic or take a very long time.

Oxygen links greenhouse gases and ozone depletion in global warming predicament

Many people do not know that ozone depletion is considered a cause of global warming as well and it is very significant. Ozone absorbs the high heat UV radiation UVB and UVC. Because the layer is depleted, this heat is getting through at 48 times the hotness of infrared radiation.  Dr. Peter L. Ward is a prominent retired Geophysicist who teaches the science behind ozone depletion as the main cause of warming and what he writes highlights this problem as relevant from a physics perspective which is what we need. http://ozonedepletiontheory.info/index.html

If we combine these two theories, greenhouse gas warming and ozone depletion theory, we have the main culprit problems causing global warming and it’s no surprise that it is accelerating. These two theories are both dependent on oxygen to solve their problems. Ozone needs oxygen to form and greenhouse gases need them to be removed by oxidation. Oxygen could be used at the lower stratosphere where the ozone is the most depleted and the greenhouse gases also persist at the same place.

There is possibly twice as much justification for the oxygen airlift because of its links to both of these predicaments.

Solar radiation and volcano activity also influence the temperature, but mankind’s part in this problem may be cataclysmic, so, we may need the man made intervention that can solve both theoretic situations, the oxygen airlift. In this blog we discuss the aspects of the idea and have proposed that it be computer modeled so that we gain a full picture of how effective it might be. We will update as we get new information about modeling activities. What you can do to help is become informed and inform others so that this idea is vetted and finds a way to becoming funded.

For more information about Dr. Peter L. Ward’s teachings on climate change go to: https://whyclimatechanges.com/; where an important side effect of erupted volcanic aerosols is ozone depletion after a short lived and relatively minor cooling phase.

Warming: Its almost all about removing greenhouse gases

As we experience the massive release of methane from pockets in the permafrost and from methane clathrates now, the globe is going to continue to heat up. The only element that can remove this methane is oxygen, which we will have enough of to do it but the problem is that the methane caused warming will last for hundreds of years unless we remove it asap.

Almost half of the warming we have is caused by synthetic greenhouse gases (Prinn et al), which can be removed by oxygen if there is a concerted effort to use it by airlift to 18-22 Km.   As methane is added, this warming is going to increase and could triple the warming and raise temperatures by a total of 6’C.

If we add geoengineering caused warming to this, by attempting to “shade” the Earth, it will put more heat trapping walls up to the heat that needs to escape. Any physical barrier would cause this, and this is why I think oxygen is preferable. Oxygen breaks down all of the greenhouse gases except CO2 and water. Chemicals being used for weather modification right now are halting precipitation in many areas, like California. Oxygen across the system does not force sacrifices like this, it allows heat release from everywhere once it is diffused into the environment.

If we do not focus on the real cause of global warming, our greenhouse gas problems, we are set to suffer more and more heat accumulation that no amount of geoengineering will significantly reduce. Aerosols simply will block the heat escape mechanism we need right now and for a significant period of time.

Humanity has the capacity to airlift anything now in vast quantities. Oxygen is available in our developed nations for this airlift protocol. We have proof in the fossil record that oxygen removes greenhouse gases and oxygen is relied upon to form all the oxidants which remove pollutants and gases from the atmosphere. We need to have this airlift computer modeled and discussed in public as the non toxic alternative to geoengineering with aerosols.

Dr. Peter Wadhams states in this presentation that the methane release will ultimately cost is $60 Trillion as global warming costs. $40-50 billion for a first oxygen airlift seems reasonable to work to avoid these direct costs as indirect costs are not yet calculable.

 

 

 

Viva Cundliffe

viva.cundliffe@gmail.com