Any other method of cooling will not be lasting. As shown here, even in the Ordovician, Oxygen was used up in oxidizing methane to CO2, left lowered oxygen levels, High CO2 levels and a 1’C warmer temperature than present day. If we are going to remove methane, we are going to use up our oxygen; this cannot be stopped. The runaway methane event now underway could be shortened and oxygen conserved with the use of a separation membrane that cleaves O2 and releases the atomic oxygen to go and react with water so that it can do even more. The O atom reacts with water, forming 2OH, providing a free doubling of oxygen. Using the OH magnification, and the shorter route to destruction that is offers, makes the process twice as effective and it uses only 3O2 net, or 30%, rather than 10 O2 net without help. No where else will there be such an opportunity to conserve oxygen while going through a methane emergency. Nowhere else will there be an opportunity to shorten the lifetime of methane as well. Oxygen has been there doing this since the beginning.
No one is serious unless they are talking about using hydroxyl radicals to combat the methane release. We cannot rely upon the private sector to pay for this measure either. It will have to be paid for by governments. Thankfully compared to many project budgets, it is not that expensive. The problem is that we are in an emergency situation and we absolutely should not wait for the Paris Climate agreement. The longer we wait, the more damage will be left from the delays.
|Mean atmospheric O
2content over period duration
|c. 13.5 vol %
(68 % of modern level)
|Mean atmospheric CO
2content over period duration
|c. 4200 ppm
(15 times pre-industrial level)
|Mean surface temperature over period duration
||c. 16 °C
(2 °C above modern level)
|Sea level (above present day)
||180 m; rising to 220 m in Caradoc and falling sharply to 140 m in end-Ordovician glaciations
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Independent Researcher Uncovers Globe’s Thermostat October 1, 2018
20 years ago, Viva Cundliffe uncovered a way to repair the Ozone layer if we ever needed it and she has been at it again. She is now planning a PhD dissertation about how to cool the planet using oxygen, airlifted to about 19 Km above to remove the canopy of gases that are holding heat in and causing the beginning of runaway global warming. Up high, oxygen is excited by the Sun and then it goes to work breaking up greenhouse gas molecules, including the ones that also destroy the ozone layer. “The only agent in the fossil record which has removed methane up high in the past and triggered cooling as well as ice ages is well documented non toxic oxygen.”
Cundliffe is proposing that instead of aerosol geoengineering particles being used to block sunlight, that molecules which are holding heat in be removed so that the heat can escape. “Heat travels at the speed of sound, 340 meters per second; we feel its impact every day and night because of the speed it can travel. To cool the Earth quickly, we just need to remove the insulating gases with oxygen and we have enough oxygen available to do this.”
Cundliffe has a science blog at vivacundliffe.com
where she addresses different aspects of “the Oxygen Earth Conservation Protocol”. Her PhD dissertation is in the field of environmental engineering and she earned a Nobel Prize nomination in 2012 for her chemistry work turning carbon dioxide gas into a solid carbon. “Not only do many animals breathe oxygen, the atmosphere breathes oxygen to stay cool. The fossil record shows this in a phenomenon coined the “snowball earth”If we want to follow the guide of nature and established chemistry, we will use oxygen to cool the Earth as it provides a permanent cooling effect compared to aerosols or smoke. Greenhouse gases as we all know, warm the Earth. This summer in Kamloops we saw the forest fire smoke provide temporary cooling which does not let heat escape, so it is not a solution. The root of the issue is that heat has to be able to escape the atmosphere.”
Cundliffe is talking to policymakers about oxygen, and says that if we need the oxygen airlift, the logistics have already been looked at and it is quite affordable, given the seriousness of the global warming situation caused by all the gases and particles in the air column.
In order to oxidize methane it takes ten oxygen molecules ten years -normally- in the atmosphere. With a methane blowout we will want to shorten the time to methane destruction by putting up there the main oxidant that removes methane. In addition to airlifting oxygen molecules, there are two other options we should consider: airlifting atomic oxygen or hydroxyl radicals. Either of these will perform a faster oxidation of methane: shortened for brevity:
- CH4 + OH =CH3 +H2O, CH3 +OH = CH2 + H2O,
- CH2 + 2OH = C + 2H2O
- C + 2OH + O= CO2 + H2O
This chemistry uses the O from an O2 once, and the rest of the oxidation remains direct with OH. The OH can be a radical OH* or a negative or positive ion in the case of manufactured OH.
In the step where sunlight naturally excites molecular oxygen and splits it into positive atomic O1D ions, this atomic oxygen will either react to form ozone, O3, or react with water to form 2 OH radicals:
4. O1D +H2O = 2OH*
As we can see from this, the formation of two oxidant OH* would be very helpful as it changes the water oxygen into a scrubbing hydroxyl radical, effectively doubling the oxygen in play as the key oxidant. It would be very good to airlift this O atom and have it meet water molecules and form OH as it bypasses the time involved for the Sun to split molecular oxygen, engage in competing chemistry, and form OH. It is much more direct in addressing methane to make it and release it.
Taking OH that is made at ground in water is also an option. The oxygen is more dilute, but the water needed is brought into contact with the O atoms quickly, in the interests of time. The OH in water is airlifted and sprayed.
We are going to need to address methane as it is escaping at dangerous levels now. There are no known negative side effects from releasing natural (in situ) oxidants to the environment. The oxidants will remove all greenhouse gases but water and CO2, which will bring a significant amount of cooling as their levels are lowered from today’s levels.
The OH* radical is normally forming bonds with particulates and making the particulates more soluble in water so that they will be removed by rain. When more particulates are in the air, the OH* ligands are used up and a shortage will cause a big problem. OH* also oxidizes greenhouse gases like methane but if it is all use up by the process of attaching to particulate matter, then it cannot burn of methane and other gases.
Aerosols also reflect sunlight that is used by the O2 molecule to split into atomic O1d atoms, where OH* is formed after the O1D meets water.
Note these two reactions:
O2 + hv(sunlight) = 2 O1d
O1d + H2O = 2OH*
From one oxygen molecule we can get 4 OH*, which is a quadruple benefit for scrubbing the air and aging aerosols. With too many aerosols wasting OH*, we lose the scrubbing. This could lead to very accelerated warming because overall it takes 10 O2 net to remove methane in an average ten year process using significant OH*.
We are just going into a four year record average highest global temperature. As we look for the causes, we must look at how the oxidants are being suppressed or overused by aerosols and allow methane to persist longer. This will be critical as we find a way to battle the methane blowouts from arctic permafrost and the oceans which can triple the carbon content of the air with methane which is almost 30 times worse than CO2.
We may have to release atomic ionized oxygen to help reverse these trends and increase oxidation of methane.
Fund us here: paypal.me/VivaCundliffe or: gofundme.com/oxygen-airlift-to-cool-earth