A Look at How OH- removes CO2 in the Atmosphere

There are several images of the Earth system in this file download. OH- forms when OH* stabilizes over time.

Closing down Luxury Emissions Access is Warranted

I am calling for the shutting down of all private airports, and private leisure air traffic by the airports of the world immediately because of the climate emergency. I also call for the banning of all luxury yacht and boat usage of recreational and corporate craft over 20 feet for the same reason. These people need to be regulated to understand that these emissions are completely unwarranted and unethical.

I call on all political leaders to direct their governments to enact immediate policy like this until the emergency is remedied. Politicians must now lead properly and also limit their own air travel footprints as much as possible. No excuses. People are dying, and until humanity has addressed this, people should be respectful of this emergency and realize how they can create a better situation…cut emissions and go carbon negative with everything- all businesses and all projects. Anyone not in compliance with this is a criminal who is living the most disrespectful moral hazard of humanity’s existence and must be stopped. I encourage people to be more vocal about this now.

Indecent Proposal to Government from the Oil Companies-Beware

The problem with this is that the governments would have to assume most of the liability of carbon capture and sequestration technology- which means the taxpayer-yet again-subsidizes the the FF companies. What should happen is a retroactive fine for all the GHG pollution these companies sold. Believe me the wealth they gathered is still around in the pockets of the wealthy, who horde it. As we can see, the proposed tax credit is the same kind of thinking that got us into this disaster. We need them to pay their taxes in full now and actually, retroactively as well through a scientifically applied assessment process based on the published and emerging literature.


We need New Politicians

Wealthier people produce more carbon pollution — even the “green” ones - Vox

We Need Politicians who will Take back Control of the Government and Capital Flows Fairness With Better Taxation and Corrected Wealth Management Policy.

From the great Urantia Book, we receive guidance on the abuse of Capital by its custodians. It is critical for us to understand that those who are holding the capital in their names are custodians of it, and no more. They have a set of responsibilities which need to be met when in that position. We know that on Earth, we have urgent need of capital for many peoples, while other people enjoy a glut of capital and this is because the wealthy have been psychotic or lazy with understanding how their selfishness and greed affect others. Climate change is a major and decisive example. As the wealthy create excessive carbon footprints, through lifestyles and wealth expansion projects, they are killing others while they also kill themselves. They need to awaken to this as a group.

It is a political and spiritual mistake to allow the freedom to pursue unadjusted wealth disparity because it has brought physical tragedy. We must find a way to adjust this disparity, while the present custodians of the excess wealth are hoarding it. Idle, hoarded wealth must be deemed as such and confiscated based on criteria which protect the public’s interests in basic need areas. If that is achieved, the wealth will be legitimate.

Note below the quoted discussion of the concern around social and religious freedom and capital management.

“Social And Religious Freedom

If men would maintain their freedom, they must, after having chosen their charter of liberty, provide for its wise, intelligent, and fearless interpretation to the end that there may be prevented:

  1. Usurpation of unwarranted power by either the executive or legislative branches.
  2. Machinations of ignorant and superstitious agitators.
  3. Retardation of scientific progress.
  4. Stalemate of the dominance of mediocrity.
  5. Domination by vicious minorities.
  6. Control by ambitious and clever would-be dictators.
  7. Disastrous disruption of panics.
  8. Exploitation by the unscrupulous.
  9. Taxation enslavement of the citizenry by the state.
  10. Failure of social and economic fairness.
  11. Union of church and state.
  12. Loss of personal liberty. ~ The Urantia Book(70:12.6)

Though capital has tended to liberate man, it has greatly complicated his social and industrial organization. The abuse of capital by unfair capitalists does not destroy the fact that it is the basis of modern industrial society. Through capital and invention the present generation enjoys a higher degree of freedom than any that ever preceded it on earth. This is placed on record as a fact and not in justification of the many misuses of capital by thoughtless and selfish custodians. ~ The Urantia Book(69:5.15)

Idle capital, in support of the few, rather than the many, is an extreme abuse that takes away freedom. The evidence of this is the many underfunded programs to help the disadvantaged and displaced, the war torn,. Taxation policy has been usurped by bribery of politicians. The governments, through politicians, must bravely extend their reach into the lives of the deceptive and deceived wealthy classes that have spitefully used the accounting professions in a massive institutionalized bribery culture. Tax laws must intervene in this corruption, and change this culture completely.

Greedy and irresponsible corporation have lied to the population and fooled governments, which they bribe one politician at a time. They passed their pollution cleanup costs onto the taxpayer and sought and obtained subsidies from the same taxpayer all for the sake of profit. This is double corruption is why it is coined corporate fascism, as they have control of the government by avoiding taxes and extorting subsidies.

A new politician is needed. One that cannot be corrupted by special interests. One whose interests really and truly revolve around the public that elected them. They must be prepared to govern the wealthy with a firm hand, and provide a sound vision of wealth distribution with the wealth of the wealthy included prominently in the planned new capital flows. The honour system of philanthropy is a failure, and the new politician must openly admit this.

New politicians must be able to recognize that the fruits of Corporate and personal greed are climate change and fallen or missing infrastructure and social safety nets on a physically dynamic and sensitive planet. They must be able to speak to this in legislatures, and effect the policy changes necessary to get these sectors to carry their weight in society correctly. We have not caused enough good politicians, thinking along these lines, to get seated in our legislatures, and it is already past the time we did this. All of the tax breaks we gave to corporations and the wealthy have resulted in our collective peril with climate change, and lost infrastructure and safety nets at their behest and it must be fully reversed as we now know they are liable for their evasions of responsibility and must retroactively pay their fair share. Finally, politicians fell asleep at the wheel of the government based pollution regulation system and allowed too much pollution into the environment, which has greatly exacerbated climate change and human health.

Viva Cundliffe, PhD abd

The wealthy are at the helm of a great deal of injustice

I proposed a 50% tax on $7million gross wealth or higher- no exceptions seems fair and generous taxation from the state. Now we have to urge politicians to wake up to this and enact robust tax policies.

The wealthy need to understand their own illusions of grandeur. I apologize if this triggers them at the levels of their egos, but it needs to be addressed. They have used every accounting trick, loophole, lobbying, propaganda, lies, different types of deception, bribery, and money itself to make more money and in the end, they foisted most of their pollution onto the tax payer.

Philanthropy came up corrupt and fell massively short of the need under this private control. Mostly they garnered respect through fear. Others’ fear of loss of income or career. Few of them have been criticized directly on the major issues of human thirst, hunger, poverty, birth control, climate gases, and, their own footprints. Their footprints are far too large when they actually need to go carbon negative in their lives and projects right away.

It is good that there is some philanthropy for the climate, but there is far from enough. Time to open your wallets to the appropriate extent, which is a lot, as soon as possible into the many aspects of world problems, and global warming. Greenhouse gases need to be removed post haste.

On behalf of the disadvantaged everywhere, we must rise up, and force the broken scales of justice in our taxation policy because the world’s wealth is being hoarded and kept out of circulation. There is no good reason of any kind for this to be happening when the need is so dire. Let’s support brave well informed, and ethical politicians in the fight for this humanity to distribute wealth appropriately. What has been happening is not appropriate.

Some fault lines that lead to necessary analysis of our lack of political will, effectiveness and failures where climate change is concerned

In order to make changes to our climate related injustices, we need to look at a number of imbalances that hold progress back. The billionaires wealth is the product of a system that is out of balance, where few elected politicians will step out and pledge their careers on the plank of taxing wealth accurately, fairly, and consistently across the board. I wonder if they feel that they are putting their lives at risk by standing in that corner of badly needed policy improvement. The wealthy are flying into lower Earth orbit and polluting the air abundantly for fun and marketing traction while people are dying and displaced because of the emissions from all of their collective projects. Politicians need to be mandated to govern all wealth movements.

Let’s also face this: the fossil fuel companies were so crooked that they managed to hoodwink and scare or lobby and brine politicians into giving them massive subsidies, while also allowing them to avoid taxes. Policy makers need to be awake to this dangerous arrangement now, as they enriched a very corrupt bunch of jackasses-smart jackasses that are still liable for the ongoing plumes of decades old GHGs in the atmosphere. It’s one very bad bunch of apples, and the political class must be asked repeatedly to resolve to protect citizens from this swindle. The taxpayers were left so thoroughly on the hook by fossil fuel company management and shareholders, none of them can truly hide from the obviousness of the horrendous political machination and maneuvering around a system that is governed by elected people in the free world who were flawed. It is time to clean up the flaws by admitting that politicians can no longer hide their historical failures in these areas, and must evolve to a transparency that has been achieved in public offices despite their efforts to hide their donors’ direction.

There really should be no such thing as a tax haven, and no entities should be allowed to escape taxation. Where did the accounting professions go wrong? They got greedy, I suspect, trading their knowledge of the loopholes for personal gain and power for its own sake. The only way to stop this doomed fault line of corrupt accountants is to change tax law, and to do that, it will need to be resolved from the top. The only lever that can achieve this is the political class, and the grass roots must call for a brave new political class loudly and urgently. Status quo politicians need to be vomited onto the proverbial carpet, and voted out in droves.

Governments have failed to protect their proletariats, because the politicians made more money and career runway running with the military industrial pharmaceutical complex. They have now reaped their own peril by this failure, allowing too much pollution, not directing regulatory bureaucrats to reign in pollution permits, and the bureaucrats happy to just obey and rubber stamp pollution permits, And let’s remember, universities have been the source of the so called scientists that we all trusted to make sure that too many pollution permits were not allowed. Well, their complacency or cowardice has now led to our collective peril, and the grass roots should be very ticked off about it.

These are real fault lines that occurred in the developed world, and the whole world, as in people everywhere should be informed of them so that we figure out to head off our own extinction. I urge people to run for office that are willing to govern the flows of wealth properly for the protection of the taxpayer, who is now in the streets regularly about global warming, telling the inadequate leaders to step up and be realistic and truthful. Frankly we would all like to be excepted from the retarded concept of pollution externalities that the corporate class foisted onto the unsuspecting taxpayer.

Climate change is an ongoing plume event, so currently, there is no statute of limitations to stop the pursuit of those who should be held liable and culpable. The courts everywhere should find the forensic evidence obvious, and if they don’t then forensic scientists are failing us on that effort as well.

We must keep grilling politicians on all of the points mentioned here, and, I’m sure there are a few more that will come to light.

June 30 2021 look at the GHG levels

This simple pie chart reminds us that the non-CO2 gases are still a major factor in our plight and deserve to be addressed:

This fact is worth remembering as we move to selecting removal technologies because there is at least one technology at ReductionTech.com that removes these gases. This does not include the methane 100x CO2 equivalent! (Cited by Guy below as 180PPM)

Catch up with Professor Guy McPherson here:

The Snake Eating Its Own Tail is a Nightmare Scenario

The Time is Here for Us to Stop Trying to Produce at All Costs and Just Do the Atmospheric Cleanup

There are Schemers and decision makers in industry that are trying to hold out for affordable atmospheric carbon removal that also turns into a merchantable product. After seeing the field of companies trying to do this, it should be clear that when it comes to the cleaning and maintenance fields, it is a prohibitively expensive pipe dream. If we think about cleaning in every area, waste capture has been planned, but for the environment, be it the home or the planet, the idea of a snake eating it’s own tail does not go very far, we just get realistic and open up our wallets for the cleaning products. This needs to be taken to heart.

The other extreme that was perpetrated on societies was the externalization of unwanted residues, the cleanup of which has been foisted on the taxpayer by big corporations. It is no surprise that the actual work of different cleanup needs is left to those who have the associated principles around being clean from the outset, or being willing to pay to remediate. These are rare peoples, and those who would do a better job are sidle lined by the angel investor class which is highly organized and biased for runaway profits seeking. Often, profit should take a hit for the sake of cleanliness, it is a form of denial that it is not a mainstream practice and paradigm.

The cunning that profit taking projects exhibited in their large bottom lines is not yet dealt with when it comes to different ongoing pollution events. Since many of the events have not been mitigated, they are still active, and governments would be wise to force these actors to pay as soon as possible, Let’s remember that ongoing pollution problems do not have a statute of limitations as ongoing events!

We need braver politicians who can legislate the prosecution of our polluters and make then pay, or, your politician is basically telling you that the taxpayer should be on the hook! They should know that not dealing with pollution as we go is very seriously more costly by their own admitted cost benefit ratios of 6:1. Even knowing this, they have not legislated task forces to litigate and adjudicate on behalf of the public purse, and this is a travesty that we all need to point out to our candidates before they get elected. The news media is so lukewarm and cowardly on this, it is a crime, and look how much pressure it took for them to report on climate change honestly. Scientists and our intelligentsia class have also failed us, all you have to do is look at the situation, early, brave warnings were not strengthened by a majority of scientists until 2017. Engineers, and Chemists have known how to assess the greenhouse gases since their first year of undergraduate school, yet only some of their associations recently took leadership and carbon reduction policies.

We need to elect leaders who know that the bills for environmental cleanup will either be paid for by the taxpayer or the polluter, and the correct payer is the polluter. This means that capitalism has to change by including pollution or its prevention as the price for doing business. Period. As soon as this change is normalized, a lot of problems are solved.

It is just ridiculous that people have been privately deciding that pollution is an externality-how did we allow this? The truth is we actually got swindled by a lot of high powered psychopaths, and now we need to put them in their place. Brave politicians thinking beyond their election time frames are our only hope. They will need to be told to legislate that the polluter pays, including the organizations like angel investment networks in their policies. The portfolios of all highly wealthy people must go carbon negative, along with their big footprint lifestyles. If they don’t the politicians are presiding over a murder suicide policy that will win out. Cleaning is an executive function in all areas fo biology and society and must be appropriately budgeted for. General cleaning will not provide repurposed products because the feed stock dirt is too dilute. The sooner that this is realized, the sooner things like a hydroxyl dispersal will be scaled. Not everything is recyclable or repurposed in the world of hygiene and holding out for really viable ideas has not produced anything affordable and appropriately low in engineering. Over engineered ideas can harm and cost as much as doing nothing.

Carbon Insurance Numbers for every person on Earth

This proposed temporary approach to carbon budgeting is reposted from 2020.

A carbon insurance number that holds your personal carbon budget information profile and history and helps you find ways to offset your carbon over a certain level has now become necessary so that scientists can manage the climate mitigation work that is being done and started.

If we don’t confront this fact, we are going to continue down the trajectory that is going to kill a lot of people and biosphere.

As a species we have to get control of our carbon demand and removal immediately. We all have a personal stake in this planet’s condition. It is time to appreciate this planet in scientific and thoughtful ways as a species of enlightened individuals. A global personal commitment to a livable planet by everyone is the last big step we need to take.

Don’t we deserve to survive? The sooner we commit to what is going to be delayed gratification and emergency socialization of carbon, the better off we will all be.

As the CEO and founder of a negative emissions technology I am telling you all this out of love for you and the planetary diversity that is left. There is no point in my company helping you unless you work with me to really be truly effective, because as of today, August 8,2020, you are not lowering your carbon demand. I presently see this as a demand-side issue.

The honor system for emissions reduction currently applied with individuals and with nations at the COP 25 level have failed.

Our particular technology can only reduce warming by 2.1’C by removing methane and synthetic Greenhouse gases once fully applied. After this, there are no second chances. The reason my company exists is to help you succeed and we know that carbon demand must come down by 50% virtually immediately. Our youth are fully aware of the need for equity, as well as many others. To stall a program of global carbon demand reduction is harmful to your fellow humanity.

Friends, the science has clearly shown us where we are headed, and what we have left to salvage, which is a significantly damaged biosphere. We are now all global citizens with global responsibilities whether we like it or not. We are now all accountable to each other whether we like it or not. We need to get on the same page about our global state.

Our carbon consumption is no longer a private matter-it matters to everyone because we do have an overshoot of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere which we all contributed to. Our first mission as a global society, is to succeed at saving our biosphere for ourselves to live on. All other affairs are trivial right now.

The news media must join in this call to globally unite and organize a rapid emergency carbon demand reduction system for everyone, that is equitable and just, while we also remove the excess greenhouse gases. I know that if you were in my shoes, you would also call for these measures so that we can all succeed.

I wish you well,

Viva Cundliffe, CEO Reduction Tech

Features of A Hydroxyl dispersal to Safely delete Climate Warming Gases

Benefits of ReductionTech Hydroxyl Dispersal Technology

  • Nature-based enhancement of a naturally existing hydroxyl atmospheric cleansing system
  • Dispersal of hydroxyl rather than forcing the whole atmosphere into the equipment
  • Fully recyclable wear parts
  • The most carbon negative per energy unit used
  • Simple, easy to adopt technology
  • Produces the cleanest exhaust air to fully reduce the Earth’s climate sensitivity
  • Removes all greenhouse gases at once
  • Based on established 2.4 B year old chemistry in the Earth’s system
  • Hydroxyl is FDA approved for indoor air use in the presence of people
  • Has few moving parts and has simple O&M procedures
  • Exponentially less expensive at scale it costs $10/CO2e
  • No unwanted process emissions
  • Offers a small footprint at global scale uses only 8 acres for the technology itself
  • Boosts a natural cleansing process rather than straitjacketing or perverting nature with unnatural secondary consequences and residue filled processes
  • Applies as a universal pollutant removal which offers universal corrections of atmospheric chemistry, particulates and GHGs, while being harmless as it is FDA approved for indoor use.
  • Buffers CO2 in clouds and causes rain out as a solid carbonate, creating safe, permanent sequestration.
  • At scale, offers fast removal of unwanted heat trapping molecules of all kinds-all at once for approximately 1 billion $, rather than trillions.
  • It has an atmosphere-sucking option for permanent targeted CO2 removal, which will still remove all pollutants at once.
  • Sustainably Enhances the naturally existing pollution sewer-system infrastructure of the Earth system without additional consequences when applied carefully
  • Will be a CSA and UN approved method by 2022

Climate System Damage is the Murder-Suicide Dilemma of the Millennium

The accelerating pace of methane buildup, for which the hydroxyl radical is the #1 counter-agent, is dangerously poised now at the fall of 2020, on the precipice of numerous burping chimneys in the Arctic.

Dr. Natalia Shakova and her colleagues in Russia look set to be completely correct in their analysis of the sub permafrost reservoirs in the shallows North of Russia, in Siberia.

There are only two technologies that propose remedying the released methane. One is a heavily engineered atmosphere-sucking zeolite adsorption-and catalytic destruction system; the other is a very simple hydroxyl dispersal technology. When it comes down to choosing, we better be thinking about how much technology we are going to throw at this self-made plight borne out of the exceedingly deceptive and abundant materialism and industrialism of the so-called superior members of the human race.

As we all are awed at the reductions in our food crops, we also better be scaling methane countermeasures.

There could suddenly come a point that our fitness to lodge a counter-technology disappears as food scarcity advances.

Public policy does not yet show that it apprehends this situation, because neither of the two counter-measures are scaling yet as of November 2020.

It is every individual’s duty in this period to be advising their publicly elected officials that their science bureaucrats, whom they depend on for advice have abundantly failed. When we pair this debacle borne out of self preservation with the avarice-filled fossil fuel sector, we have what are known as forensic contributors to the build up of numerous abandoned emissions in the atmospheric infrastructure of the planet. I would hope now, that absolutely no one very soon, will deny that the atmosphere IS a SEWER system, which requires respectful management and care.

We all use the atmosphere to receive wastes, and thus, it will by force of its obvious status as a sewer system, a uniting of the global kind like never before.I truly hope we get these technologies scaled right away. I am attached to the hydroxyl dispersal mitigation technology over at http://www.reductiontech.com

We have to be very clear with the laggard policy makers, that these technologies are now essentially more important than planting trees, which will take 50 years to ramp up. It all must be put front and center. We need as much speed as we can muster.

Viva Cundliffe, PhD abd, CEO ReductionTech Inc.

ReductionTech Inc is a beneficial company that is incorporated so that it can hire professional staff in the future to remove all GHGs at once, otherwise, we are of different character than traditional for-profit corporations, whom are also culpable for forcing over-consumption on people for the sake of money.

How YOU work with hydroxyl radicals every Day

Have you opened a window for fresh air or to deodorize your indoor space? Have you rolled down a window in your car to get “fresh air? Did you or your mother admire the clothing dried on a clothesline because they smelled “so good”? When you passed gas somewhere, did you move away from that area, knowing the scent you created would dissipate? (to be fair, by the hydroxyl and by diffusion)

Did you turn on a fan to replace indoor air with outdoor air? Have you taken an outdoor walk to refresh your health?

These are examples of you working with hydroxyl radicals, which are found in ordinary air.

Did you know that the air around you is a working sewer system? Well it is! It processes massive varieties of chemicals including the CO2 you exhale and all other greenhouse gases.

It is now not working properly, why? Because the hydroxyl refreshing sewer system is overloaded. We were not meant to discharge the amounts of exhaust we currently do. We have overshot its capacity today by a factor of two. This fast-acting atmospheric sewer system is also tied to the Ozone layer, where oxygen, which is a part of the system, is tied up with refrigerant gases from fridges, air conditioners, cooling and legally prescribed HVAC systems. (HVAC systems are REQUIRED to replenish Oxygen/Hydroxyl all the time) These technologies, along with combustion “eat” oxygen and hydroxyl.

We are now confronted with the choices to continue, to lower our use of this beautiful, DIVINE, sewer system, and probably need to enhance it if we can. If we can add more hydroxyl, would we? What if we could replace the hydroxyl to a level that is now needed?

I think we should begin actively replacing and enhancing the hydroxyl content of the air to save us from certain failure as stewards. Have a look a http://www.reductiontech.com to learn more. It offers a $10/tonne CO2e system that can be scaled globally to achieve the needed hydroxyl levels!

Viva Cundliffe, PhD abd

Nobody Anywhere Should Pay Less Than $50/Tonne for ANY Carbon Offset

If you are paying less, you should know that it hurts the cause of remedying climate change. Cheaper tree-based offset Schemes are vastly undervalued for convenience “greenwashing”. Please don’t pay less than $50/Tonne to ensure that all vetted technologies are piloted-not all of that funding is in place yet.

The global private carbon market needs to get a MEMO from everyone else, from the bottom up, that we need the technologies sorted out for the Climate Emergency.

Viva Cundliffe

Please view the referenced articles about the real costs to society in published literature:

Please visit this blog article:


Trees are a Pastoral Climate Treatment Only

“Emergent is a non-profit organization with the sole mission of accelerating the speed and scale of tropical forest conservation to combat the climate crisis. With an international team of world-class climate experts and a board with deep private and public sector experience, Emergent is supported by a coalition including the Environmental Defense Fund (EDF)the Rockefeller Foundation, and the Norwegian government’s International Climate and Forest Initiative (NICFI).”

While this coalition must be supported, we actually require technology to be scaled to keep apace if possible with the Climate Shift. Watch these Climate leaders address what we’re facing. It is time for all people to be advising their elected officials that they want technology scaled right away. If we do not do this, there’s no telling how the “Climate Neutrality by 2050 is going to fail us'”

Think of how the West will Emancipate the Rest of the World and Itself From Climate Failure

We are now in a Level II Abrupt Climate Shift, which combines a 1.4’C global average temperature with accelerating and increasing numbers of tipping points.

The historical abandoned emissions in the atmospherics along with the present high daily emissions of the West are the key focal point issues.

Simply put, the abandoned emissions must be removed with technology.

All members of Western society are aware that their lifestyle emissions and industrial emissions require complete mitigation. There are only a few direct mitigation technologies to select from; therefore all of them must be furthered by public policy.

The fear of climate collapse needs to be higher than any other priority in the minds of Western leaders.

Some leaders are offering climate carbon neutrality by 2050. This is not appropriate to the level of actual danger, and science advisors within the governments are jointly failing the leaders as well as the public which pays their salaries.

A level III Climate Emergency may appear very closely on the heels of a Level II Climate emergency, where we have runaway warming either directly or through a burp of methane, ocean CO2 sink collapse or disappearance of clouds.

The time to launch all options that truly mitigate by defining what they are, and scaling them, is now.

Viva Cundliffe, PhD abd


The right release of OH to the troposphere with some modeling

Hydroxyl is the main sink for tropospheric ozone, which is desirable at this lower altitude but if we wanted to repair the ozone layer, we would need to ensure that oxide radicals were delivered to the stratosphere instead. The natural tendency of an oxide radical released at room temperature is to go to the ground state eventually if it does not form the newly termed doublet hydroxyl (An O* in HO*OH). This causes the oxide, or even a doublet hydroxyl radical to revert to HO2* or atomic ground state oxide, and then reincorporate into the Ozone cycle higher up, most likely in the Stratosphere. This would be most likely where the atmosphere is shorter, such as at the poles. This may be important if the Ozone Layer is now regularly damaged at both poles. (11-2020 Comment by Viva Cundliffe PhD abd)

Here the projection of atomic O making its way up towards the Stratosphere when dispersed.

Note this below explanation from this Harvard University site: The formulas are omitted here but are there http://acmg.seas.harvard.edu/people/faculty/djj/book/bookchap10.html


In the late 1950s it was discovered that catalytic cycles initiated by oxidation of water vapor could represent a significant sink for O3 in the stratosphere. Water vapor is supplied to the stratosphere by transport from the troposphere, and is also produced within the stratosphere by oxidation of CH4. Water vapor mixing ratios in the stratosphere are relatively uniform, in the range 3-5 ppmv. In the stratosphere, water vapor is oxidized by O(1D) produced from (R3) :

The high-energy O(1D) atoms are necessary to overcome the stability of the H2O molecule.

The hydroxyl radical OH produced by See can react with O3, producing the hydroperoxy radical HO2 which in turn reacts with O3:

We refer to the ensemble of OH and HO2 as the HOx chemical family. The sequence of reactions (R6) and (R7) consumes O3 while conserving HOx. Therefore HOx acts as a catalyst for O3 loss; production of one HOx molecule by (R5) can result in the loss of a large number of O3 molecules by cycling of HOx through (R6) and (R7) . Termination of the catalytic cycle requires loss of HOx by a reaction such as

The sequence (R5)  (R8) is a chain reaction for O3 loss in which (R5) is the initiation step, (R6)  (R7) are the propagation steps, and (R8) is the termination step. There are several variants to the HOx-catalyzed mechanism, involving reactions other than See  See ; see problem 10. 4 . From knowledge of stratospheric water vapor concentrations and rate constants for (R5)  (R8) , and assuming chemical steady state for the HOx radicals (a safe assumption in view of their short lifetimes), one can calculate the O3 loss rate. Such calculations conducted in the 1950s and 1960s found that HOx catalysis was a significant O3 sink but not sufficient to reconcile the chemical budget of O3. Nevertheless, the discovery of HOx catalysis introduced the important new idea that species present at trace levels in the stratosphere could trigger chain reactions destroying O3. This concept was to find its crowning application in subsequent work, as described below. Another key advance was the identification of (R5) as a source for the OH radical, a strong oxidant. As we will see in chapter 11, oxidation by OH provides the principal sink for a large number of species emitted in the atmosphere. Finally, recent work has shown that the HOx-catalyzed mechanism represents in fact the dominant sink of O3 in the lowest part of the stratosphere ( section 10.4 ). End Quote.

So, the two ongoing problems, Stratospheric Ozone decline, and Tropospheric swamping of hydroxyl levels due to anthropogenic pollution deserve different consideration for any direct remediation effort.

Viva Cundliffe, PhD abd

ReductionTech’s hydroxyl release goes before Regulator for permissions


We applied for a Provincial OK to release hydroxyl for carbon offsetting/GHG removal. It will be several weeks before the company obtains the green light. This application is the first of its kind in Canada. The company charges $25/CO2 equivalent for its nature based solution.

Tree planting is not a speedy enough solution to match abrupt climate change

With 40 billion tonnes of addressable, abandoned CO2 emissions being produced for several years in a row, no one should be under the illusion that the two to three planets’s worth of trees actually needed, nor the speed of CO2 removal can really be counted as action: it is more like just putting trees back.

Using biology like this is a pastoral approach, and is not appropriate for handling an abrupt climate shift, or several shifts in sequence as we may be looking at in terms of collapse milestones known as feed backs and tipping points.

Really, governments are just at the beginning of the virtuous chain of actions that are necessary to match the “speed of technology” that is behind this full spectrum disaster. Technology can provide the matching magnitude of GHG removals required to move the levels downward in a time frame that can mean reasonable human survival.

The trees planted will not remove us from the worst case scenarios pathways, which we are still firmly on. Don’t be pacified by governments who are still avoiding paying for technology based removal of gases. They need to be reminded that this is far from being dealt with and that working technology was needed thirty years ago.

Humanity, unfortunately is going to have to go into the “red” to ensure a feasible climate security picture. There is little government machinery in place to pay for public GHG removal, which means that politicians were the last to truly understand the situation. This does not bode well for humanity unless we all ensure that politicians know the IPCC has already spoken on this: GHG removal technologies are urgently required for immediate deployment and this should be their first priority above everything else.

PAY ATTENTION TO KEVIN ANDERSON: https://youtu.be/aTaqd6rn2RA

Viva Cundliffe, PhD abd, climate strategist.

Voluntary Carbon Markets are Corrupt and need standardization to be Just

You’d think that the 300MT of removed carbon was really helping in the voluntary carbon markets, but it is not. Buyers of offsets there can steal a tonne of CO2 removed for a buck, leaving the offsetters and the victims cheated of at least $49/tonne according to numerous sources on the true costs of carbon and methane. The true cost must be streamlined globally right away, as there are funds for mitigation going missing because of shorting in these markets, by both private companies AND GOVERNMENTS.

See for yourself here at these links:





Until the world, through the IPCC and other international agreements, standardizes the reparations cost for GHGs, both governments and private organizations will abuse these markets for the sake of profit.

Even in glorious Canada, governments have only been paying $12 or less CAD for offsets, and pocketing the difference from up to $50 in taxes/tonne to general revenue. There are claims that the tax is revenue neutral but the figures do not add up, nor is there a dedicated trust fund publicized for that difference, and there should be.

The voluntary market only offsets 330MT/year CO2e, in a possible 40Billion tonne market, so in this early stage is it critical to be setting aside the correct mitigation funds for the real mitigation to come.

Viva Cundliffe, PhD abd

CEO, ReductionTech Inc