Sparging Oxygen Ions Into the Ocean is Remedial Geochemistry at its Best

Sparging Oxygen Ions Into the Ocean: Geochemistry at its Best

 73 grams of Oxygen Ions could draw down as much as 1Kg of COand is going to be tested.

Deeper sparging (bubbling) is better for the more acidic mid depth waters below the thermocline, thereby reducing the risk of precipitating magnesium Hydrate above pH of 8.251, and Calcium Hydroxide above 8.4. Because the logarithmic range of 7-8 is 1/10th of 8-9, the relative remediation is also higher, the water is colder and will hold more oxygen, and any gas not dissolving there will have a longer residence time in water for best absorption and remedial impact on the average overall pH.

Ideal pH and a cooler temperature has caused the ocean to absorb 1/3 of the industrial revolution’s CO22, but as it drops, the net dissolved oxygen has lowered and is more alarming when coupled with CO2 combustion 3 caused atmospheric oxygen depletion as a loss to CO2.

FIGURE 2.2 Inorganic carbon and pH vary as a function of depth and latitude. (a) Vertical profiles typical of the mid-North Pacific showing variations of several seawater chemical parameters with depth. Adapted from Morel and Hering (1993) with calculations using constants from Dickson et al. (2007) and Lueker et al. (2000). (b) Typical distribution of pH with depth along a North-South transect for the Pacific Ocean. (Byrne et al., 2010a). 2

On a 1” oxygen sparging line, delivering to a 50-60’ depth of water gives about 26 pounds of resistance to the 2100 psi pressure of the oxygen tanks. (.036lb/inch H2O x 12” x 60ft).

Influencing Seawater pH Slots

Seawater CO2 in the three slots has increasing alkalinity as it moves to the right, and as a formed carbonate ion it will trigger the two left side slots to become accommodating to more CO2, so leveraging with Oxide is shown in line 2.

1. CO2 + H2O ↔ (1,4) H2CO3 H+ + (2,5)HCO3 ↔ 2 H+ + (3,6)CO32–

2. O2- + H2O ↔ 2OH ↔ 4 H+ + 2CO32-

2CO32- is the most alkaline species, and leaves room for the other two slots to absorb CO2 as the less alkaline ions. Thesis: One O2- ion triggers room for up to 5 accommodation slots for CO2 in the buffer (arbitrary slot number in brackets) and some additional Oxygen in the form of OH- will serve as a helpful oxidant.

The sparging pH target has a limit as mentioned of 8.25, but when this much CO2 can be absorbed into the water, this technique could be extremely helpful. This would also take an oxygen demand load and remediate it as the auto-ionization of the OH of the seawater (a separate natural mechanism) would be strengthened by the presence of this added oxygen.

About 89 percent of the carbon dioxide dissolved in seawater takes the form of bicarbonate ion, about 10 percent as carbonate ion, and 1 percent as dissolved gas 4. Placing carbonate ions via this method thus could be helpful for ocean life affected by acidity as well as for CO2 mitigation. Using oxygen ions avoids the sodium (cation) loading problems with sodium hydroxide and other hydroxides, and there is little difference over concern for control of the dosage (solid powder vs gas) because it must be restricted to a target pH of 8.25 to avoid precipitation of minerals.

The effective stoichancy of oxygen ions to absorbed CO2 would range from 1:5 to 1:6 assuming that the continual uptake of CO2 by plant life and continual CO2 vapor pressure are actively moving CO2 and make some of the stochastic ratios for those overlap on the buffer system. This can be tested in the lab.

Sea Life Conditions

Because the pH adjustment is limited t within the precipitation maximum, membranes of animals are not at much risk5 , in fact slight alkalinity and negative ions (as even a small increase in ecosystem voltage) may be helpful, as well because that pH rests close to the mineralogically ideal ocean pH. Again, deeper waters can be alkalized more aggressively but would require mechanical assistance to access the deeper water or piping for sub surface sparging. Diffusion would occur and the net absorption of CO2 would be achieved regardless. Viva Cundliffe PhD abd

 

 

  1. A. R. Haas, The Effect Of The Addition Of Alkali To Sea Water Upon The Hydrogen Ion Concentration. Laboratory Of Plant Physiology, Harvard University, Cambridge. July 18, 1916
  2. National Research Council. 2010. Ocean Acidification: A National Strategy to Meet the Challenges of a Changing Ocean. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. Doi: 10.17226/12904
  3. Ralph Keeling, Scripps O2 Program; http://scrippso2.ucsd.edu/
  4. Scientific American, “Rising Acidity in the Ocean: The Other CO2 Problem”, retrieved April 1, 2018, https://www.scientificamerican.com/article/rising-acidity-in-the-ocean/.
  5. Idlir Liko, Jonathan T. S. Hopper, Timothy M. Allison, Justin L. P. Benesch, Carol V. Robinson, “Negative Ions Enhance Survival of Membrane Protein Complexes”,J. Am. Soc. Mass Spectrom. (2016) 27:1099Y1104
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Science and Geochemistry Solution That Will Stop Aerosol Spraying -a Thesis

NATURAL, NON-TOXIC, REMEDIAL WEATHER MODIFICATION: INTRODUCTION OF THE BACKGROUND SCIENTIFIC THEORY WITH A PROCEDURAL MANUAL FOR OXYGEN ION BASED WEATHER MODIFICATION AND WITH MONITORING, DOSAGE AND DISPERSAL CALCULATIONS FOR THE VANCOUVER, BC CANADA AIR SHED SYSTEM.

The theory presented applies to all other air sheds.

2018 NATURAL NONTOXIC REMEDIAL WEATHER MODIFICATION BACKGROUND SCIENTIFIC THEORY

By Viva Cundliffe

How to replace geoengineering permanently with global geochemistry

Global methane levels are set to quickly and unavoidable double CO2 levels, which is going to lower the oxygen content of the ocean. This will kill most of the ocean food chain which is already dying at the larval stage of several species1-4. Only an ocean with a nearer optimal pH can sustain life and absorb CO2. Adding oxygen ions to larvae hatches in captivity must be followed by stepped targeted oxygenation of the ocean. Both oxygen levels and pH are treated at the same time.

If we are going to save ocean life and the capacity of the ocean to absorb our collective CO2 emissions in its buffering system we need to make oxygen ions. They can be made from mining carbon dioxide made by coal plants which have been fully sealed and capture CO2 for this purpose. The carbon from the CO2 is made into different products like graphite, diamond parts, fiber parts, and special powders, and can be recycled.

The Oxygen needs of the global atmospheric remediation and Ocean remediation have been calculated. The combined heat and power base needed is 8GW of coal systems producing CO2 for splitting into oxygen and carbon. The carbon products all have a strong business case and markets. Retired coal assets can be retooled to help mankind handle all of its CO2 emissions on an emergency and ongoing basis. At the same time, toxic geoengineering can be replaced with remedial geochemistry that can reflect heat, modify weather, remove all of its current toxic side effects. We need a global solution and we now have one. You can learn more at http://www.vivacundliffe.com and http://www.gcgreencarbon.com, and help spread this important information to stop our global environmental failure.

We have the chance to use one economic solution to build the technology that will deliver the oxygen ions for the planet.

Oxygen is missing from the ocean because of CO2 dissolving and lowering the pH by raising the hydrogen ion content. Hydrogen and oxygen are two ends of the seesaw in water chemistry balance.

In the atmosphere, Oxygen ions can scrub particles and methane out of the way, and also trigger different kinds of weather naturally. This can be increased safely to help the planet cool by removing heat blocking molecules. The ozone layer can also be repaired by restoring oxygen and it is not healing like we want.

Our lives are full of the many references in the news about how our Earth is failing. We need to act, even in small ways, but we now have a high output system to provide oxygen on the drawing board and the science is open for public oversight. We cannot keep secret a non toxic way to rebalance the Earth system with a proven pH and oxygenating chemistry for seawater and scrubbing and weather ions for the atmosphere that need only a moderate amount of testing as known agents of the air and weather.

The whole plan would cost less than 0.5% of global GDP per year for 6 years and can be spread over a longer period. Can we afford not to gain control of our emissions, when we have an economically positive and healing technology available to us?

  1. http://e360.yale.edu/features/northwest_oyster_die-offs_show_ocean_acidification_has_arrived
  2. https://grist.org/food/2011-08-17-the-great-oyster-crash/
  3. https://news.nationalgeographic.com/news/2009/12/091207-giant-lobsters-acid-oceans.html
  4. https://phys.org/news/2015-04-lobster-growth-decline-ocean-acidification.html
  5. http://www.bbc.com/news/science-environment-41653511
  6. https://www.pri.org/stories/2017-11-05/study-rising-co2-levels-threaten-global-marine-life

Unequivocal truth about oxidation in the atmosphere by Viva Cundliffe

The atmosphere almost totally relies upon the hydro oxygens to clean it. Here is proof from over a dozen major institutions: https://acd-ext.gsfc.nasa.gov/People/Jackman/Liang_et_al_2017.pdf

The abstract and introduction are very clear so this really is a full scientific endorsement for OH and hydro oxygens as a route for atmospheric cleanup, especially methane which is coming online.

Further to this the paper reads: “The hydroxyl radical (OH) is the primary atmospheric oxidant, and reaction with tropospheric OH is the most important removal process for many ozone-depleting substances (ODSs), their replacements and other gases that contain one or more hydrogen atoms, e.g., hydrochlorofluorocarbons (HCFCs) and hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs). Many of these compounds are also potent greenhouse gases (GHGs) and can exert significant impacts on climate [Rigby et al., 2014; Velders et al., 2015]. The rates at which these long-lived gases are removed from the atmosphere, and therefore, their lifetimes, are dependent on the atmospheric OH abundance. Their lifetimes are used to calculate future atmospheric abundances based on emission projection scenarios. OH is also responsible for removing methane (CH4) and many short-lived atmospheric constituents, e.g., volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and carbon monoxide (CO). Atmospheric mean OH abundance and its interannual variations are important for understanding the observed long-term atmospheric trends of these trace gases [e.g., McNorton et al., 2016; Rigby et al., 2017; Turner et al., 2017].”

So it really is our duty to utilize the Hydroxyl and oxidation route to remove blocks to atmospheric cooling as the Solar system sits in a warm interstellar cloud. Putting up blocks to heat escape are not following sound engineering principles. The cost to do this has been reduced to a system that is less expensive overall than current efforts to cool the Earth, which are killing the biosphere with toxic sediment which traps heat and moisture on its way down. We don’t need to disperse these powders. We need to let Viva Cundliffe and a new team lead a milestone based launch of oxygen ionization, direct ozone repair, methane oxidation, and cooling in logical science based steps, which should reverse some of the damage done and recover the natural system with full public knowledge and oversight. Follow GC Green Carbon on twitter and youtube.

 

 

Viva Cundliffe Weather as a radiation budget controller to deflect heat to space-a new science approach

There we go with the new science of Water Vapor Global Cooling where we can use the clouds and natural aerosols to deflect heat off of the Earth. the magnitude available is highlighted in the last graphic below the movie. It should be enough if the interstellar cloud we are in has given us most of its heat already around the Earth and other planets. For references see Viva’s additional blog articles. Please share this blog article and blog link and consider subscribing! Our public work will be journaled here.

 

These diagrams can be used for reference also:

Viva Cundliffe on Geoengineering and the Methane Blowout of 2016 to 2026

Viva Addresses this disaster and how we should treat it. Cleaning it up to allow cooling rather adding more mass and obfuscating heat loss…one costs and one is an economic boost with carbon products added and – is a remedy and not a band aid…when do we stop doing the stop gap and recreate most of what we had? I propose half of the methane be oxidized, or prepare for that, and any ice age triggering can be monitored on the way to this dose.

 

Diamond Parts factory a future concept: Light weight and durable

https://gcgreencarbon.com/about-gc-green-carbon-inc/diamond-glass-industry-concept/