Sunday Livestream May 7 With Viva Cundliffe, CEO of ReductionTech Discussing Hydroxyl Dispersal for Decontamination and Climate Pattern Enhancement
Can We Enhance the Asian Monsoon With Targeted Residue- Free Oxygen-Based Ions and Hydroxyl? Likely, Yes
Next Tuesday will be about the other large climate patterns being enhanced and then Thursday is a wrap up and final summary for everyone, with a Sunday screening at 5PM PST this Sunday and next Sunday.
Stage 3 Climate Collapse Now Happening Sunday April 30th Livestream with Viva Cundliffe
Hydroxyl Dispersal and the 2023 Abrupt Climate Collapse Amplification
Extreme weather calming with ReductionTech’s OH-, OH+, O++, O+ ions
This is our last week in our 9 week series, which will end with a livestream this Sunday at 5PST.
April 23rd livestream all about hydroxyl and its beneficial locations and effects
With Hydroxyl Dispersal Everyone is a Stakeholder
Calling The Climate Decision Makers
The Climate Technology Decision Makers Human Flaws are Failing Humanity in Its Time of Greatest Need
As we published earlier, the next 4 years from Q2 2023 onward are going to be very much more difficult for humanity with respect to significantly worsening climate consequences because the hydroxyl is now inundated and allowing methane a free increase, and the onset of El Nino warming is going to combine with this in a way that is unprecedented. We already see it in the ocean temperature record of 2023.
We absolutely must put a stop to the laziness and cowardice that we are encountering in the Climate Technology funding world. One-dimensional solutions are being selected over the most comprehensive climate solution, which is a controlled oxidation event that would promote and secure improving biodiversity, including improving plant and mineral diversity, increasing Earth’s albedo, cleaner air, calmer weather, and normalized rain. The decision makers are shrinking from funding this procedure.
In this letter, we are again pointing to the abundant peer-reviewed literature on the Earth’s critically important hydroxyl radical, and its roles in pollutant removal, sanitation and precipitation that have made the Earth so habitable. All of this is now pretty much lost, in case you hadn’t noticed.
There is also abundant peer reviewed literature, which we list some of below, describing the deeply studied and verified paleo-chemistry work that the whole geology world has taken the time to investigate and publish on.
At ReductionTech Inc, we are no longer going to allow decision makers to fool themselves into thinking that not enough is known about oxidation, and continue to shrink from funding even a partial scale up of an affordable and simple mitigation technology to address the global situation. The global situation not only includes overheating, and the sooner that this is acknowledged by leaders, the better.
It is these climate mitigation technology decision makers sacred responsibility to be fully abreast of the planetary reality that is upon humanity, and finance to address that reality as comprehensively and efficiently as possible, without just cowardly cobbling together a bunch of one-dimensional and one gas removal solutions in hope for a collective marginal improvement. The decision makers are currently making the climate disaster more expensive and convoluted. There is absolutely no excuse for this happening, and we must insist that they be tasked with performing a better science review than what they have provided.
We assert that they must not shrink from the overwhelming scientific evidence that backs up what we are proposing and projecting for a scaled controlled hydroxyl dispersal procedure. We think that is simply boils down to these people not being abreast of the literature, and it is their sacred duty to have a solid familiarity with it, and are providing the references below to support the needed reading.
There is a lot of open literature about the hydroxyl radical in the modern atmosphere as well, that any competent researcher can locate.
We ask that decision makers more concertedly utilize our referenced materials because they are patently clear about the chemistry aspects, and any generalist should be able to see the deep merit and values in the very existence of the hydroxyl radical. We cannot live without it, frankly, and it is now losing to the record pollution levels. ReductionTech is the only team with a plan to support life- sustaining hydroxyl levels. Please don’t shrink from reviewing this important and life-saving science.
The realistic hit list of what is going wrong globally, and what a hydroxyl mitigation can do includes again: decisive global cooling, improving biodiversity, including improving plant and mineral diversity, increasing Earth’s albedo, cleaner air, calmer weather, better air quality and normalized rain.
Thank you for sharing this advisory and thank you for reviewing this critical science urgently.
Viva Cundliffe, CEO
- ^ Holland, Heinrich D. (2006). “The oxygenation of the atmosphere and oceans”. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society: Biological Sciences. 361 (1470): 903–915. doi:10.1098/rstb.2006.1838. PMC 1578726. PMID 16754606.
- ^ Margulis, Lynn; Sagan, Dorion (1986). “Chapter 6, “The Oxygen Holocaust””. Microcosmos: Four Billion Years of Microbial Evolution. California: University of California Press. p. 99. ISBN 9780520210646.
- ^ Jump up to:a b c Lyons, Timothy W.; Reinhard, Christopher T.; Planavsky, Noah J. (February 2014). “The rise of oxygen in Earth’s early ocean and atmosphere”. Nature. 506 (7488): 307–315. Bibcode:2014Natur.506..307L. doi:10.1038/nature13068. PMID 24553238. S2CID 4443958.
- ^ Jump up to:a b Gumsley, Ashley P.; Chamberlain, Kevin R.; Bleeker, Wouter; Söderlund, Ulf; De Kock, Michiel O.; Larsson, Emilie R.; Bekker, Andrey (6 February 2017). “Timing and tempo of the Great Oxidation Event”. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. 114 (8): 1811–1816. doi:10.1073/pnas.1608824114. ISSN 0027-8424. PMC 5338422. PMID 28167763.
- ^ Sosa Torres, Martha E.; Saucedo-Vázquez, Juan P.; Kroneck, Peter M.H. (2015). “Chapter 1, Section 2: The rise of dioxygen in the atmosphere”. In Kroneck, Peter M.H.; Sosa Torres, Martha E. (eds.). Sustaining Life on Planet Earth: Metalloenzymes mastering dioxygen and other chewy gases. Metal Ions in Life Sciences volume 15. Vol. 15. Springer. pp. 1–12. doi:10.1007/978-3-319-12415-5_1. ISBN 978-3-319-12414-8. PMID 25707464.
- ^ Ossa Ossa, Frantz; Spangenberg, Jorge E.; Bekker, Andrey; König, Stephan; Stüeken, Eva E.; Hofmann, Axel; Poulton, Simon W.; Yierpan, Aierken; Varas-Reus, Maria I.; Eickmann, Benjamin; Andersen, Morten B.; Schoenberg, Ronny (15 September 2022). “Moderate levels of oxygenation during the late stage of Earth’s Great Oxidation Event”. Earth and Planetary Science Letters. 594: 117716. doi:10.1016/j.epsl.2022.117716. hdl:10481/78482.
- ^ Plait, Phil (28 July 2014). “Poisoned Planet”. Slate. Retrieved 8 July 2019.
- ^ Hodgskiss, Malcolm S. W.; Crockford, Peter W.; Peng, Yongbo; Wing, Boswell A.; Horner, Tristan J. (27 August 2019). “A productivity collapse to end Earth’s Great Oxidation”. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. 116 (35): 17207–17212. doi:10.1073/pnas.1900325116. ISSN 0027-8424. PMC 6717284. PMID 31405980.
- ^ Schirrmeister, Bettina E.; de Vos, Jurriaan M.; Antonelli, Alexandre; Bagheri, Homayoun C. (29 January 2013). “Evolution of multicellularity coincided with increased diversification of cyanobacteria and the Great Oxidation Event”. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. 110 (5): 1791–1796. Bibcode:2013PNAS..110.1791S. doi:10.1073/pnas.1209927110. PMC3562814. PMID23319632.
- “Great Oxidation Event: More oxygen through multicellularity”. ScienceDaily (Press release). 17 January 2013.
- ^ Pavlov, A. A.; Kasting, J. F. (5 July 2004). “Mass-Independent Fractionation of Sulfur Isotopes in Archean Sediments: Strong Evidence for an Anoxic Archean Atmosphere”. Astrobiology. 2 (1): 27–41. doi:10.1089/153110702753621321. PMID 12449853. Retrieved 25 September 2022.
- ^ Zhang, Shuichang; Wang, Xiaomei; Wang, Huajian; Bjerrum, Christian J.; Hammarlund, Emma U.; Costa, M. Mafalda; Connelly, James N.; Zhang, Baomin; Su, Jin; Canfield, Donald E. (4 January 2016). “Sufficient oxygen for animal respiration 1,400 million years ago”. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. 113 (7): 1731–1736. Bibcode:2016PNAS..113.1731Z. doi:10.1073/pnas.1523449113. PMC 4763753. PMID 26729865.
- ^ Jump up to:a b c d e f Kasting, J. (12 February 1993). “Earth’s early atmosphere”. Science. 259 (5097): 920–926. doi:10.1126/science.11536547. PMID 11536547. S2CID 21134564.
- ^ Jump up to:a b c d e Shaw, George H. (August 2008). “Earth’s atmosphere – Hadean to early Proterozoic”. Geochemistry. 68 (3): 235–264. Bibcode:2008ChEG…68..235S. doi:10.1016/j.chemer.2008.05.001.
- ^ Kasting, J.F. (2014). “Modeling the Archean Atmosphere and Climate”. Treatise on Geochemistry. Elsevier. pp. 157–175. doi:10.1016/b978-0-08-095975-7.01306-1. ISBN 9780080983004.
- ^ Jump up to:a b c d Wiechert, U. H. (20 December 2002). “GEOLOGY: Earth’s Early Atmosphere”. Science. 298 (5602): 2341–2342. doi:10.1126/science.1079894. PMID 12493902. S2CID 128858098.
- ^ Baumgartner, Raphael J.; Van Kranendonk, Martin J.; Wacey, David; Fiorentini, Marco L.; Saunders, Martin; Caruso, Stefano; Pages, Anais; Homann, Martin; Guagliardo, Paul (1 November 2019). “Nano−porous pyrite and organic matter in 3.5-billion-year-old stromatolites record primordial life” (PDF). Geology. 47 (11): 1039–1043. Bibcode:2019Geo….47.1039B. doi:10.1130/G46365.1. S2CID 204258554.
- ^ Jump up to:a b Trendall, A. F. (2002). “The Significance of Iron-Formation in the Precambrian Stratigraphic Record”. Precambrian Sedimentary Environments. pp. 33–66. doi:10.1002/9781444304312.ch3. ISBN 978-1-4443-0431-2.
- ^ Jump up to:a b Cox, Grant M.; Halverson, Galen P.; Minarik, William G.; Le Heron, Daniel P.; Macdonald, Francis A.; Bellefroid, Eric J.; Strauss, Justin V. (December 2013). “Neoproterozoic iron formation: An evaluation of its temporal, environmental and tectonic significance”. Chemical Geology. 362: 232–249. Bibcode:2013ChGeo.362..232C. doi:10.1016/j.chemgeo.2013.08.002. S2CID 56300363.
- ^ Large, Ross R.; Hazen, Robert M.; Morrison, Shaunna M.; Gregory, Dan D.; Steadman, Jeffrey A.; Mukherjee, Indrani (May 2022). “Evidence that the GOE was a prolonged event with a peak around 1900 Ma”. Geosystems and Geoenvironment. 1 (2): 100036. doi:10.1016/j.geogeo.2022.100036.
- ^ Warke, Matthew R.; Di Rocco, Tommaso; Zerkle, Aubrey L.; Lepland, Aivo; Prave, Anthony R.; Martin, Adam P.; Ueno, Yuichiro; Condon, Daniel J.; Claire, Mark W. (16 June 2020). “The Great Oxidation Event preceded a Paleoproterozoic “snowball Earth””. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. 117 (24): 13314–13320. doi:10.1073/pnas.2003090117. ISSN 0027-8424. PMC 7306805. PMID 32482849.
- ^ Luo, Genming; Ono, Shuhei; Beukes, Nicolas J.; Wang, David T.; Xie, Shucheng; Summons, Roger E. (6 May 2016). “Rapid oxygenation of Earth’s atmosphere 2.33 billion years ago”. Science Advances. 2 (5): e1600134. doi:10.1126/sciadv.1600134. ISSN 2375-2548. PMC 4928975. PMID 27386544.
- ^ Poulton, Simon W.; Bekker, Andrey; Cumming, Vivien M.; Zerkle, Aubrey L.; Canfield, Donald E.; Johnston, David T. (April 2021). “A 200-million-year delay in permanent atmospheric oxygenation”. Nature. 592 (7853): 232–236. doi:10.1038/s41586-021-03393-7. ISSN 1476-4687. PMID 33782617. S2CID 232419035.
- ^ Jump up to:a b Hodgskiss, Malcolm S.W.; Sperling, Erik A. (20 October 2021). “A prolonged, two-step oxygenation of Earth’s early atmosphere: Support from confidence intervals”. Geology. 50 (2): 158–162. doi:10.1130/g49385.1. ISSN 0091-7613. S2CID 244621056.
- ^ Jump up to:a b c d e f g h Catling, David C.; Kasting, James F. (2017). Atmospheric Evolution on Inhabited and Lifeless Worlds. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. doi:10.1017/9781139020558. ISBN 978-1-139-02055-8.[page needed]
- ^ Utsunomiya, Satoshi; Murakami, Takashi; Nakada, Masami; Kasama, Takeshi (January 2003). “Iron oxidation state of a 2.45 Byr-old paleosol developed on mafic volcanics”. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta. 67 (2): 213–221. Bibcode:2003GeCoA..67..213U. doi:10.1016/s0016-7037(02)01083-9.
- ^ Jump up to:a b Johnson, Jena E.; Gerpheide, Aya; Lamb, Michael P.; Fischer, Woodward W. (27 February 2014). “O2constraints from Paleoproterozoic detrital pyrite and uraninite”. Geological Society of America Bulletin. 126 (5–6): 813–830. doi:10.1130/b30949.1. ISSN 0016-7606.
- ^ Hofmann, Axel; Bekker, Andrey; Rouxel, Olivier; Rumble, Doug; Master, Sharad (September 2009). “Multiple sulphur and iron isotope composition of detrital pyrite in Archaean sedimentary rocks: A new tool for provenance analysis”. Earth and Planetary Science Letters. 286 (3–4): 436–445. Bibcode:2009E&PSL.286..436H. doi:10.1016/j.epsl.2009.07.008. hdl:1912/3068.
- ^ Eriksson, Patrick G.; Cheney, Eric S. (January 1992). “Evidence for the transition to an oxygen-rich atmosphere during the evolution of red beds in the lower proterozoic sequences of southern Africa”. Precambrian Research. 54 (2–4): 257–269. Bibcode:1992PreR…54..257E. doi:10.1016/0301-9268(92)90073-w.
- ^ Trendall, A.F.; Blockley, J.G. (2004). “Precambrian iron-formation”. In Eriksson, P.G.; Altermann, W.; Nelson, D.R.; Mueller, W.U.; Catuneanu, O. (eds.). Evolution of the Hydrosphere and Atmosphere. Developments in Precambrian Geology. Developments in Precambrian Geology. Vol. 12. pp. 359–511. doi:10.1016/S0166-2635(04)80007-0. ISBN 978-0-444-51506-3.
- ^ Jump up to:a b Canfield, Donald E.; Poulton, Simon W. (1 April 2011). “Ferruginous Conditions: A Dominant Feature of the Ocean through Earth’s History”. Elements. 7 (2): 107–112. doi:10.2113/gselements.7.2.107.
- ^ Lantink, Margriet L.; Oonk, Paul B. H.; Floor, Geerke H.; Tsikos, Harilaos; Mason, Paul R. D. (February 2018). “Fe isotopes of a 2.4 Ga hematite-rich IF constrain marine redox conditions around the GOE”. Precambrian Research. 305: 218–235. doi:10.1016/j.precamres.2017.12.025. Retrieved 29 December 2022.
- ^ Jump up to:a b c d Lyons, Timothy W.; Anbar, Ariel D.; Severmann, Silke; Scott, Clint; Gill, Benjamin C. (May 2009). “Tracking Euxinia in the Ancient Ocean: A Multiproxy Perspective and Proterozoic Case Study”. Annual Review of Earth and Planetary Sciences. 37 (1): 507–534. Bibcode:2009AREPS..37..507L. doi:10.1146/annurev.earth.36.031207.124233.
- ^ Scholz, Florian; Severmann, Silke; McManus, James; Noffke, Anna; Lomnitz, Ulrike; Hensen, Christian (December 2014). “On the isotope composition of reactive iron in marine sediments: Redox shuttle versus early diagenesis”. Chemical Geology. 389: 48–59. Bibcode:2014ChGeo.389…48S. doi:10.1016/j.chemgeo.2014.09.009.
- ^ Farquhar, J. (4 August 2000). “Atmospheric Influence of Earth’s Earliest Sulfur Cycle”. Science. 289 (5480): 756–758. Bibcode:2000Sci…289..756F. doi:10.1126/science.289.5480.756. PMID 10926533. S2CID 12287304.
- ^ Fakhraee, Mojtaba; Hancisse, Olivier; Canfield, Donald Eugene; Crowe, Sean A.; Katsev, Sergei (22 April 2019). “Proterozoic seawater sulfate scarcity and the evolution of ocean–atmosphere chemistry”. Nature Geoscience. 12 (5): 375–380. doi:10.1038/s41561-019-0351-5. S2CID 146026944. Retrieved 20 December 2022.
- ^ Frei, R.; Gaucher, C.; Poulton, S.W.; Canfield, D.E. (2009). “Fluctuations in Precambrian atmospheric oxygenation recorded by chromium isotopes”. Nature. 461 (7261): 250–253. Bibcode:2009Natur.461..250F. doi:10.1038/nature08266. PMID 19741707. S2CID 4373201.
- ^ Lyons, Timothy W.; Reinhard, Christopher T. (September 2009). “Oxygen for heavy-metal fans”. Nature. 461 (7261): 179–180. doi:10.1038/461179a. PMID 19741692. S2CID 205049360.
- ^ Jump up to:a b Kerr, R. A. (17 June 2005). “Earth Science: The Story of O2”. Science. 308 (5729): 1730–1732. doi:10.1126/science.308.5729.1730. PMID 15961643. S2CID 129684672.
- ^ Konhauser, Kurt O.; Lalonde, Stefan V.; Planavsky, Noah J.; Pecoits, Ernesto; Lyons, Timothy W.; Mojzsis, Stephen J.; Rouxel, Olivier J.; Barley, Mark E.; Rosìere, Carlos; Fralick, Phillip W.; Kump, Lee R.; Bekker, Andrey (October 2011). “Aerobic bacterial pyrite oxidation and acid rock drainage during the Great Oxidation Event”. Nature. 478 (7369): 369–373. Bibcode:2011Natur.478..369K. doi:10.1038/nature10511. PMID22012395. S2CID205226545.
- Wynne Parry (25 October 2011). “Evidence of Earliest Oxygen-Breathing Life on Land Discovered”. Live Science.
- ^ Catling, David C.; Zahnle, Kevin J. (February 2020). “The Archean atmosphere”. Science Advances. 6 (9): eaax1420. Bibcode:2020SciA….6.1420C. doi:10.1126/sciadv.aax1420. ISSN 2375-2548. PMC 7043912. PMID 32133393.
- ^ Jump up to:a b Schopf, J. William (29 June 2006). “Fossil evidence of Archaean life”. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences. 361 (1470): 869–885. doi:10.1098/rstb.2006.1834. PMC 1578735. PMID 16754604.
- ^ Bosak, Tanja; Knoll, Andrew H.; Petroff, Alexander P. (30 May 2013). “The Meaning of Stromatolites”. Annual Review of Earth and Planetary Sciences. 41 (1): 21–44. Bibcode:2013AREPS..41…21B. doi:10.1146/annurev-earth-042711-105327. ISSN 0084-6597.
- ^ Brocks, Jochen J.; Logan, Graham A.; Buick, Roger; Summons, Roger E. (13 August 1999). “Archean Molecular Fossils and the Early Rise of Eukaryotes”. Science. 285 (5430): 1033–1036. Bibcode:1999Sci…285.1033B. doi:10.1126/science.285.5430.1033. PMID 10446042.
- ^ French, Katherine L.; Hallmann, Christian; Hope, Janet M.; Schoon, Petra L.; Zumberge, J. Alex; Hoshino, Yosuke; Peters, Carl A.; George, Simon C.; Love, Gordon D. (27 April 2015). “Reappraisal of hydrocarbon biomarkers in Archean rocks”. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. 112 (19): 5915–5920. Bibcode:2015PNAS..112.5915F. doi:10.1073/pnas.1419563112. PMC 4434754. PMID 25918387.
- ^ Anbar, Ariel D.; Rouxel, Olivier (May 2007). “Metal Stable Isotopes in Paleoceanography”. Annual Review of Earth and Planetary Sciences. 35 (1): 717–746. Bibcode:2007AREPS..35..717A. doi:10.1146/annurev.earth.34.031405.125029. S2CID 130960654.
- ^ Stüeken, E.E.; Buick, R.; Bekker, A.; Catling, D.; Foriel, J.; Guy, B.M.; Kah, L.C.; Machel, H.G.; Montañez, I.P. (1 August 2015). “The evolution of the global selenium cycle: Secular trends in Se isotopes and abundances”. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta. 162: 109–125. Bibcode:2015GeCoA.162..109S. doi:10.1016/j.gca.2015.04.033.
- ^ Cardona, T.; Murray, J. W.; Rutherford, A. W. (May 2015). “Origin and Evolution of Water Oxidation before the Last Common Ancestor of the Cyanobacteria”. Molecular Biology and Evolution. 32 (5): 1310–1328. doi:10.1093/molbev/msv024. PMC 4408414. PMID 25657330.
- ^ Tomitani, Akiko (April 2006). “The evolutionary diversification of cyanobacteria: Molecular–phylogenetic and paleontological perspectives”. PNAS. 103 (14): 5442–5447. Bibcode:2006PNAS..103.5442T. doi:10.1073/pnas.0600999103. PMC 1459374. PMID 16569695.
- ^ “Cyanobacteria: Fossil Record”. Ucmp.berkeley.edu. Retrieved 26 August 2010.
- ^ Dutkiewicz, A.; Volk, H.; George, S.C.; Ridley, J.; Buick, R. (2006). “Biomarkers from Huronian oil-bearing fluid inclusions: An uncontaminated record of life before the Great Oxidation Event”. Geology. 34 (6): 437. Bibcode:2006Geo….34..437D. doi:10.1130/G22360.1.
- ^ Caredona, Tanai (6 March 2018). “Early Archean origin of heterodimeric Photosystem I”. Heliyon. 4 (3): e00548. doi:10.1016/j.heliyon.2018.e00548. PMC 5857716. PMID 29560463.
- ^ Howard, Victoria (7 March 2018). “Photosynthesis originated a billion years earlier than we thought, study shows”. Astrobiology Magazine. Archived from the original on 1 October 2020. Retrieved 23 March 2018.
- ^ Jump up to:a b Holland, Heinrich D. (November 2002). “Volcanic gases, black smokers, and the great oxidation event”. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta. 66 (21): 3811–3826. Bibcode:2002GeCoA..66.3811H. doi:10.1016/s0016-7037(02)00950-x.
- ^ Jump up to:a b University of Zurich (17 January 2013). “Great Oxidation Event: More oxygen through multicellularity”. ScienceDaily.
- ^ Anbar, A.; Duan, Y.; Lyons, T.; Arnold, G.; Kendall, B.; Creaser, R.; Kaufman, A.; Gordon, G.; Scott, C.; Garvin, J.; Buick, R. (2007). “A whiff of oxygen before the great oxidation event?”. Science. 317 (5846): 1903–1906. Bibcode:2007Sci…317.1903A. doi:10.1126/science.1140325. PMID 17901330. S2CID 25260892.
- Dahl, T.W.; Hammarlund, E.U.; Anbar, A.D.; Bond, D.P.G.; Gill, B.C.; Gordon, G.W.; Knoll, A.H.; Nielsen, A.T.; Schovsbo, N.H. (30 September 2010). “Devonian rise in atmospheric oxygen correlated to the radiations of terrestrial plants and large predatory fish”. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. 107 (42): 17911–17915. Bibcode:2010PNAS..10717911D. doi:10.1073/pnas.1011287107. PMC 2964239. PMID 20884852.
- ^ Catling, David C.; Claire, Mark W. (August 2005). “How Earth’s atmosphere evolved to an oxic state: A status report”. Earth and Planetary Science Letters. 237 (1–2): 1–20. Bibcode:2005E&PSL.237….1C. doi:10.1016/j.epsl.2005.06.013.
- ^ Jump up to:a b Cloud, Preston E. (1968). “Atmospheric and Hydrospheric Evolution on the Primitive Earth”. Science. 160 (3829): 729–736. Bibcode:1968Sci…160..729C. doi:10.1126/science.160.3829.729. JSTOR 1724303. PMID 5646415.
- ^ Jump up to:a b Cloud, P. (1973). “Paleoecological Significance of the Banded Iron-Formation”. Economic Geology. 68 (7): 1135–1143. doi:10.2113/gsecongeo.68.7.1135.
- ^ Blankenship, Robert E. (31 March 2017). “How Cyanobacteria went green”. Science. 355 (6332): 1372–1373. Bibcode:2017Sci…355.1372B. doi:10.1126/science.aam9365. PMID 28360281. S2CID 37177062.
- ^ “Breathing Easy Thanks to the Great Oxidation Event”. Scientific American. Retrieved 6 April 2016.
- ^ Konhauser, Kurt O.; Pecoits, Ernesto; Lalonde, Stefan V.; Papineau, Dominic; Nisbet, Euan G.; Barley, Mark E.; Arndt, Nicholas T.; Zahnle, Kevin; Kamber, Balz S. (April 2009). “Oceanic nickel depletion and a methanogen famine before the Great Oxidation Event”. Nature. 458 (7239): 750–753. Bibcode:2009Natur.458..750K. doi:10.1038/nature07858. PMID 19360085. S2CID 205216259.
- ^ Wang, Shui-Jiong; Rudnick, Roberta L.; Gaschnig, Richard M.; Wang, Hao; Wasylenki, Laura E. (4 March 2019). “Methanogenesis sustained by sulfide weathering during the Great Oxidation Event”. Nature Geoscience. 12 (4): 296–300. doi:10.1038/s41561-019-0320-z. S2CID 134715298. Retrieved 11 November 2022.
- ^ Kirschvink, Joseph L.; Kopp, Robert E. (27 August 2008). “Palaeoproterozoic ice houses and the evolution of oxygen-mediating enzymes: the case for a late origin of photosystem II”. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences. 363 (1504): 2755–2765. doi:10.1098/rstb.2008.0024. PMC 2606766. PMID 18487128.
- ^ des Marais, David J.; Strauss, Harald; Summons, Roger E.; Hayes, J.M. (October 1992). “Carbon isotope evidence for the stepwise oxidation of the Proterozoic environment”. Nature. 359 (6396): 605–609. Bibcode:1992Natur.359..605M. doi:10.1038/359605a0. PMID 11536507. S2CID 4334787.
- ^ Krissansen-Totton, J.; Buick, R.; Catling, D.C. (1 April 2015). “A statistical analysis of the carbon isotope record from the Archean to Phanerozoic and implications for the rise of oxygen”. American Journal of Science. 315 (4): 275–316. Bibcode:2015AmJS..315..275K. doi:10.2475/04.2015.01. S2CID 73687062.
- ^ Luo, Genming; Zhu, Xiangkun; Wang, Shuijiong; Zhang, Shihong; Jiao, Chaoqun (22 June 2022). “Mechanisms and climatic-ecological effects of the Great Oxidation Event in the early Proterozoic”. Science China Earth Sciences. 65 (9): 1646–1672. doi:10.1007/s11430-021-9934-y. S2CID 250065550. Retrieved 12 November 2022.
- ^ Jump up to:a b Catling, D.C. (3 August 2001). “Biogenic Methane, Hydrogen Escape, and the Irreversible Oxidation of Early Earth”. Science. 293 (5531): 839–843. Bibcode:2001Sci…293..839C. doi:10.1126/science.1061976. PMID 11486082. S2CID 37386726.
- ^ Lenton, T.M.; Schellnhuber, H.J.; Szathmáry, E. (2004). “Climbing the co-evolution ladder”. Nature. 431 (7011): 913. Bibcode:2004Natur.431..913L. doi:10.1038/431913a. PMID 15496901. S2CID 27619682.
- ^ Eguchi, James; Seales, Johnny; Dasgupta, Rajdeep (2019). “Great Oxidation and Lomagundi events linked by deep cycling and enhanced degassing of carbon”. Nature Geoscience. 13 (1): 71–76. Bibcode:2020NatGe..13…71E. doi:10.1038/s41561-019-0492-6. PMC 6894402. PMID 31807138.
- ^ Köhler, Inga; Konhauser, Kurt O; Papineau, Dominic; Bekker, Andrey; Kappler, Andreas (June 2013). “Biological carbon precursor to diagenetic siderite with spherical structures in iron formations”. Nature Communications. 4 (1): 1741. Bibcode:2013NatCo…4.1741K. doi:10.1038/ncomms2770. PMID23612282.
- “Iron in primeval seas rusted by bacteria”. Phys.org. 25 April 2013.
- ^ American, Scientific. “Abundant Oxygen Indirectly Due to Tectonics”. Scientific American. Retrieved 6 April 2016.
- ^ Goldblatt, C.; Lenton, T.M.; Watson, A.J. (2006). “Bistability of atmospheric oxygen and the Great Oxidation”. Nature. 443 (7112): 683–686. Bibcode:2006Natur.443..683G. doi:10.1038/nature05169. PMID 17036001. S2CID 4425486.
- ^ Claire, M.W.; Catling, D.C.; Zahnle, K.J. (December 2006). “Biogeochemical modelling of the rise in atmospheric oxygen”. Geobiology. 4 (4): 239–269. doi:10.1111/j.1472-4669.2006.00084.x. S2CID 11575334.
- ^ Klatt, J. M.; Chennu, A.; Arbic, B. K.; Biddanda, B. A.; Dick, G. J. (2 August 2021). “Possible link between Earth’s rotation rate and oxygenation”. Nature Geoscience. 14 (8): 564–570. Bibcode:2021NatGe..14..564K. doi:10.1038/s41561-021-00784-3. S2CID 236780731.
- ^ Pennisi, Elizabeth (2 August 2021). “‘Totally new’ idea suggests longer days on early Earth set stage for complex life”. Science. doi:10.1126/science.abl7415. S2CID 242885564.
- ^ Bekker, Andrey (2014). “Huronian Glaciation”. In Amils, Ricardo; Gargaud, Muriel; Cernicharo Quintanilla, José; Cleaves, Henderson James (eds.). Encyclopedia of Astrobiology. Springer Berlin Heidelberg. pp. 1–8. doi:10.1007/978-3-642-27833-4_742-4. ISBN 978-3-642-27833-4.
- ^ Kopp, Robert E.; Kirschvink, Joseph L.; Hilburn, Isaac A.; Nash, Cody Z. (2005). “The Paleoproterozoic snowball Earth: A climate disaster triggered by the evolution of oxygenic photosynthesis”. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. 102 (32): 11131–11136. Bibcode:2005PNAS..10211131K. doi:10.1073/pnas.0504878102. PMC 1183582. PMID 16061801.
- ^ Lane, Nick (5 February 2010). “First breath: Earth’s billion-year struggle for oxygen”. New Scientist. No. 2746.
- ^ Sperling, Erik; Frieder, Christina; Raman, Akkur; Girguis, Peter; Levin, Lisa; Knoll, Andrew (August 2013). “Oxygen, ecology, and the Cambrian radiation of animals”. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. 110 (33): 13446–13451. Bibcode:2013PNAS..11013446S. doi:10.1073/pnas.1312778110. PMC 3746845. PMID 23898193.
- ^ Sverjensky, Dimitri A.; Lee, Namhey (1 February 2010). “The Great Oxidation Event and Mineral Diversification”. Elements. 6 (1): 31–36. doi:10.2113/gselements.6.1.31.
- ^ “Evolution of Minerals”. Scientific American. March 2010.
- ^ Jump up to:ab Sumner, Dawn Y.; Hawes, Ian; Mackey, Tyler J.; Jungblut, Anne D.; Doran, Peter T. (1 October 2015). “Antarctic microbial mats: A modern analog for Archean lacustrine oxygen oases”. Geology. 43 (10): 887–890. Bibcode:2015Geo….43..887S. doi:10.1130/G36966.1. hdl:10092/12361. S2CID55557643.
- “Oxygen oasis in Antarctic lake reflects Earth in distant past”. ScienceDaily (Press release). 1 September 2015.
- ^ Jump up to:a b c Gross, J.; Bhattacharya, D. (August 2010). “Uniting sex and eukaryote origins in an emerging oxygenic world”. Biol. Direct. 5: 53. doi:10.1186/1745-6150-5-53. PMC 2933680. PMID 20731852.
- ^ Jump up to:a b Hörandl E, Speijer D (February 2018). “How oxygen gave rise to eukaryotic sex”. Proc. Biol. Sci. 285 (1872): 20172706. doi:10.1098/rspb.2017.2706. PMC 5829205. PMID 29436502.
- ^ Bernstein, Harris; Bernstein, Carol (2017). “Sexual Communication in Archaea, the Precursor to Eukaryotic Meiosis”. Biocommunication of Archaea. pp. 103–117. doi:10.1007/978-3-319-65536-9_7. ISBN 978-3-319-65535-2.
- ^ Schidlowski, Manfred; Eichmann, Rudolf; Junge, Christian (1975). “Precambrian sedimentary carbonates: carbon and oxygen isotope geochemistry and implications for the terrestrial oxygen budget”. Precambrian Research. 2 (1): 1–69. Bibcode:1975PreR….2….1S. doi:10.1016/0301-9268(75)90018-2.
- ^ Schidlowski, Manfred; Eichmann, Rudolf; Junge, Christian (1976). “Carbon isotope geochemistry of the Precambrian Lomagundi carbonate province, Rhodesia”. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta. 40 (4): 449–455. Bibcode:1976GeCoA..40..449S. doi:10.1016/0016-7037(76)90010-7.
- ^ “Research”.
- ^ Strassert, Jürgen F. H.; Irisarri, Iker; Williams, Tom A.; Burki, Fabien (2021). “A molecular timescale for eukaryote evolution with implications for the origin of red algal-derived plastids”. Nature. 12 (1): 1879. Bibcode:2021NatCo..12.1879S. doi:10.1038/s41467-021-22044-z. PMC 7994803. PMID 33767194.
- ^ Jump up to:a b c Mänd, Kaarel; Lalonde, Stefan V.; Robbins, Leslie J.; Thoby, Marie; Paiste, Kärt; Kreitsmann, Timmu; Paiste, Päärn; Reinhard, Christopher T.; Romashkin, Alexandr E.; Planavsky, Noah J.; Kirsimäe, Kalle; Lepland, Aivo; Konhauser, Kurt O. (April 2020). “Palaeoproterozoic oxygenated oceans following the Lomagundi–Jatuli Event”. Nature Geoscience. 13 (4): 302–306. Bibcode:2020NatGe..13..302M. doi:10.1038/s41561-020-0558-5. hdl:10037/19269. S2CID 212732729.
- ^ Van Kranendonk, Martin J. (2012). “16: A Chronostratigraphic Division of the Precambrian: Possibilities and Challenges”. In Felix M. Gradstein; James G. Ogg; Mark D. Schmitz; abi M. Ogg (eds.). The geologic time scale 2012 (1st ed.). Amsterdam: Elsevier. pp. 359–365. doi:10.1016/B978-0-444-59425-9.00016-0. ISBN 978-0-44-459425-9.
- ^ Martin, Adam P.; Condon, Daniel J.; Prave, Anthony R.; Lepland, Aivo (December 2013). “A review of temporal constraints for the Palaeoproterozoic large, positive carbonate carbon isotope excursion (the Lomagundi–Jatuli Event)”. Earth-Science Reviews. 127: 242–261. doi:10.1016/j.earscirev.2013.10.006. Retrieved 12 December 2022.
- ^ Tang, Hao-Shu; Chen, Yan-Jing; Santosh, M.; Zhong, Hong; Wu, Guang; Lai, Yong (28 January 2013). “C–O isotope geochemistry of the Dashiqiao magnesite belt, North China Craton: implications for the Great Oxidation Event and ore genesis”. Geological Journal. 48 (5): 467–483. doi:10.1002/gj.2486. S2CID 140672677. Retrieved 12 December 2022.
- ^ Kreitsmann, T.; Lepland, A.; Bau, M.; Prave, A.; Paiste, K.; Mänd, K.; Sepp, H.; Martma, T.; Romashkin, A.E.; Kirsimäe, K. (September 2020). “Oxygenated conditions in the aftermath of the Lomagundi-Jatuli Event: The carbon isotope and rare earth element signatures of the Paleoproterozoic Zaonega Formation, Russia”. Precambrian Research. 347: 105855. Bibcode:2020PreR..347j5855K. doi:10.1016/j.precamres.2020.105855. hdl:10023/23503. S2CID 225636859.
- ^ Mayika, Karen Bakakas; Moussavou, Mathieu; Prave, Anthony R.; Lepland, Aivo; Mbina, Michel; Kirsimäe, Kalle (21 July 2020). “The Paleoproterozoic Francevillian succession of Gabon and the Lomagundi-Jatuli event”. Geology. 48 (11): 1099–1104. doi:10.1130/G47651.1.
The next four years 2023-2027 are going to be extremely difficult for humanity
NOTICE and Q2 2-23 Climate Mitigation Policy Prediction From ReductionTech Inc
April 10, 2023
Based on our experiences with several different funding decisionmakers in the climate technology field, we are issuing a prediction about what is going to transpire with respect to climate solution finance in light of the critical next four year El Nino period.
Firstly this El Nino period is likely to be very serious and damaging, with a major uptick in death and property losses partially due to El Nino itself, but also because the hydroxyl radical is now fully inundated, as evidenced by the growing increase in methane levels, which is a SURE SIGN that the Earth’s hydroxyl safety system is now overwhelmed.
We see that funding decisions are not appropriately researching, understanding and recognizing the natural system opportunities, and this will result in delay that will cause losses out of the control of ReductionTech Inc, who seeks to scale a controlled hydroxyl dispersal to create an oxidation event that will halt global warming while improving biodiversity, including improving plant and mineral diversity, increasing Earth’s albedo, cleaner air, calmer weather, and normalized rain.
We are forced to advise all of the citizens of the Earth that all of the above mentioned planetary improvements are indeed very badly needed, and we offer a scalable and affordable dispersal technology that provides and oxidation event under controlled conditions at scale that can deliver them.
Unfortunately our experience with decisionmakers in the climate mitigation field is that they cannot seem to embrace the deep and obvious body of science literature that supports the offered approach, and find a way to back the proposed procedure. The literature on this geochemistry is abundant, and we unfortunately cannot force decisionmakers to perform the research that we point them to that would remove their hesitancy.
We believe that our job is to keep warning humanity about these shortcomings, so that we can find a faster path to funding a superior, clean, affordable, scalable residue free mutli-disaster mitigation that is avaliable from us.
The many decisonmakers that we have encountered have been clearly advised. This warning serves as additional advice. Until we have decsionmakers that can apprehend the referenced science, trust the nature based chemistry approach, humanity will tragically be forced to struggle longer than necessary.
I trust that this issue is clear, and I call on decisionmakers to be more proactive in better understanding the Earth’s ecosystem, before it is too late.
April 9th live replay about hydroxyl dispersal aspects-don’t miss
One gas GHG removals might send the wrong message while under-delivering
Increasing the relative abundance of OH*
April 2 Sunday Livestream on Hydroxyl Dispersal and what the new AI says about it-don’t miss!
Hydroxyl and its reactions with each pollutant-the many faces of hydroxyl
Hydroxyl and how it helps with necessary Nitrogen control
Sunday March 26 Livestream replay in 8 week hydroxyl dispersal series-Don’t Miss!
See more at @Viva1cable until April 22!
How ReductionTech Offsets Are Calculated-Important for Decisionmakers Wanting to Understand the Science and Math
Hydroxyl Inundation, Methane Removal, and Exciting New Advanced Oxidation Chemistry Possibilities
Climate System Damage is the Murder-Suicide Dilemma of the Millennium
The accelerating pace of methane buildup, for which the hydroxyl radical is the #1 counter-agent, is dangerously poised now at the fall of 2020, on the precipice of numerous burping chimneys in the Arctic.
Dr. Natalia Shakova and her colleagues in Russia look set to be completely correct in their analysis of the sub permafrost reservoirs in the shallows North of Russia, in Siberia.
There are only two technologies that propose remedying the released methane. One is a heavily engineered atmosphere-sucking zeolite adsorption-and catalytic destruction system; the other is a very simple hydroxyl dispersal technology. When it comes down to choosing, we better be thinking about how much technology we are going to throw at this self-made plight borne out of the exceedingly deceptive and abundant materialism and industrialism of the so-called superior members of the human race.
As we all are awed at the reductions in our food crops, we also better be scaling methane countermeasures.
There could suddenly come a point that our fitness to lodge a counter-technology disappears as food scarcity advances.
Public policy does not yet show that it apprehends this situation, because neither of the two counter-measures are scaling yet as of November 2020.
It is every individual’s duty in this period to be advising their publicly elected officials that their science bureaucrats, whom they depend on for advice have abundantly failed. When we pair this debacle borne out of self preservation with the avarice-filled fossil fuel sector, we have what are known as forensic contributors to the build up of numerous abandoned emissions in the atmospheric infrastructure of the planet. I would hope now, that absolutely no one very soon, will deny that the atmosphere IS a SEWER system, which requires respectful management and care.
We all use the atmosphere to receive wastes, and thus, it will by force of its obvious status as a sewer system, a uniting of the global kind like never before.I truly hope we get these technologies scaled right away. I am attached to the hydroxyl dispersal mitigation technology over at http://www.reductiontech.com
We have to be very clear with the laggard policy makers, that these technologies are now essentially more important than planting trees, which will take 50 years to ramp up. It all must be put front and center. We need as much speed as we can muster.
Viva Cundliffe, PhD abd, CEO ReductionTech Inc.
ReductionTech Inc is a beneficial company that is incorporated so that it can hire professional staff in the future to remove all GHGs at once, otherwise, we are of different character than traditional for-profit corporations, whom are also culpable for forcing over-consumption on people for the sake of money.
Methane Arrester Systems to fight the methane blowout disaster come on the market
Making Air that has absolutely no GHGs
Emergency Methane Release Arresters
Six issues a non toxic oxygen airlift would address
A liquid oxygen airlift and dispersal at the lower stratosphere would address these six issues:
- Reduction and removal of synthetic greenhouse gases which are causing 80 ppm of CO2 equivalent warming to the planet.
- Ozone depleting substances removal or reduction.
- Thickening up the ozone layer, increasing needed UV protection by reducing the relative chlorine, fluorine and bromine fractions.
- Methane gas removal which appears to be becoming extremely urgent.
- Reduce acceleration of global warming and species extinction.
- Slow and may even reverse ice loss.
We have everything to gain and nothing to lose at this point as we wrestle with carbon emissions more slowly than we can afford to.
Cost: $50B, Size: 6 million Tonnes of oxygen over 5-10 years. Remember the other alternatives we have; the are toxic or take a very long time.
Warming: Its almost all about removing greenhouse gases
As we experience the massive release of methane from pockets in the permafrost and from methane clathrates now, the globe is going to continue to heat up. The only element that can remove this methane is oxygen, which we will have enough of to do it but the problem is that the methane caused warming will last for hundreds of years unless we remove it asap.
Almost half of the warming we have is caused by synthetic greenhouse gases (Prinn et al), which can be removed by oxygen if there is a concerted effort to use it by airlift to 18-22 Km. As methane is added, this warming is going to increase and could triple the warming and raise temperatures by a total of 6’C.
If we add geoengineering caused warming to this, by attempting to “shade” the Earth, it will put more heat trapping walls up to the heat that needs to escape. Any physical barrier would cause this, and this is why I think oxygen is preferable. Oxygen breaks down all of the greenhouse gases except CO2 and water. Chemicals being used for weather modification right now are halting precipitation in many areas, like California. Oxygen across the system does not force sacrifices like this, it allows heat release from everywhere once it is diffused into the environment.
If we do not focus on the real cause of global warming, our greenhouse gas problems, we are set to suffer more and more heat accumulation that no amount of geoengineering will significantly reduce. Aerosols simply will block the heat escape mechanism we need right now and for a significant period of time.
Humanity has the capacity to airlift anything now in vast quantities. Oxygen is available in our developed nations for this airlift protocol. We have proof in the fossil record that oxygen removes greenhouse gases and oxygen is relied upon to form all the oxidants which remove pollutants and gases from the atmosphere. We need to have this airlift computer modeled and discussed in public as the non toxic alternative to geoengineering with aerosols.
Dr. Peter Wadhams states in this presentation that the methane release will ultimately cost is $60 Trillion as global warming costs. $40-50 billion for a first oxygen airlift seems reasonable to work to avoid these direct costs as indirect costs are not yet calculable.