Interpretation of Snowball Earth

The fossil record shows both Methane and CO2 in the sequences of glaciation studied By the Snowball Earth Hypothesis. The Prime actor between these two gases…Oxygen, is very important, as it is used up by Methane as Methane is broken down into CO2 and water. Here is another natural action that may not have been fully captured by the hypothesis- Once the plant matter is rotting after a cooling event which causes plant die off, the decomposition process gives off Methane which will eventually become CO2.

So we witness discussion like this, where the headline is confusing the ordinary reader.

https://www.livescience.com/16402-snowball-earth-carbon-dioxide.html

At this point it should not be a discussion about Carbon Dioxide only- as Methane is so often the precursor gas which sponges up the cooling oxygen gas (hydroxyl) which triggers or encourages cooling of the Earth.

But this article points out that CO2 is not the warming trigger according to their assessment and also that levels were potentially very high in the fossil record- over 1000 ppm. This suggests that methane was very high-essentially up to the same ppm level to cause that CO2 level. This would cause warming by removing 6 O atoms per CH4.

The thermostat is  a relatively simple relationship between Oxygen and Methane, and now anthropogenic CO2, with a longer term,  blanketing protection from water and CO2 as Methane is broken down. The water vapor warms at lower altitude.

Presently we are injecting combustion CO2 without a Methane precursor and other greenhouse gases which also have depleted the oxygen for the ozone layer. The real impact has been the cooling action from the plant exhalation of oxygen ( that is ionized in the high atmosphere) which is well recorded. It then rots and gives Methane/CO2 which effectively rewarms.

Therefore if plants can affect this thermostat, we should look there to the oxygen and how it changed the available Methane, then that resulting decomposition to CO2 and water which then fed another cycle of plant growths, and went around again in this simple cycle. These gases were always present once plant life was here. It is the ratios which we want to check against that record in order to find the applicability.

The more powerful than CO2 gases are subject to oxidation and promote cooling ( heat venting) by their absence mathematically and physically. Their control requires oxygen, either natural or provided via direct remediation. Our problem is having all of these releasing all at once, including Methane from permafrost.

The warming caused by all of the co pollutants from combustion cause warming and are called short lived climate pollutants. However in September 2010, a Methane blowout process now occurring will be far more serious. The antidote to the Methane is one gas- Oxygen-best delivered in the form of an ion called the hydroxyl. In the fossil record, there are cases where oxygen and its oxidation of methane has caused a snowball Earth, when CO2 levels were low enough to allow heat venting. Presently we can count on only about 2’C of this cooling, but even that may be a pivotal and necessary opportunity we must take. We must seriously consider some forms of carbon rationing, either at national levels, or target high emitters, to make any cooling successful.

 

 

 

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Unequivocal truth about oxidation in the atmosphere by Viva Cundliffe

The atmosphere almost totally relies upon the hydro oxygens to clean it. Here is proof from over a dozen major institutions: https://acd-ext.gsfc.nasa.gov/People/Jackman/Liang_et_al_2017.pdf

The abstract and introduction are very clear so this really is a full scientific endorsement for OH and hydro oxygens as a route for atmospheric cleanup, especially methane which is coming online.

Further to this the paper reads: “The hydroxyl radical (OH) is the primary atmospheric oxidant, and reaction with tropospheric OH is the most important removal process for many ozone-depleting substances (ODSs), their replacements and other gases that contain one or more hydrogen atoms, e.g., hydrochlorofluorocarbons (HCFCs) and hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs). Many of these compounds are also potent greenhouse gases (GHGs) and can exert significant impacts on climate [Rigby et al., 2014; Velders et al., 2015]. The rates at which these long-lived gases are removed from the atmosphere, and therefore, their lifetimes, are dependent on the atmospheric OH abundance. Their lifetimes are used to calculate future atmospheric abundances based on emission projection scenarios. OH is also responsible for removing methane (CH4) and many short-lived atmospheric constituents, e.g., volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and carbon monoxide (CO). Atmospheric mean OH abundance and its interannual variations are important for understanding the observed long-term atmospheric trends of these trace gases [e.g., McNorton et al., 2016; Rigby et al., 2017; Turner et al., 2017].”

So it really is our duty to utilize the Hydroxyl and oxidation route to remove blocks to atmospheric cooling as the Solar system sits in a warm interstellar cloud. Putting up blocks to heat escape are not following sound engineering principles. The cost to do this has been reduced to a system that is less expensive overall than current efforts to cool the Earth, which are killing the biosphere with toxic sediment which traps heat and moisture on its way down. We don’t need to disperse these powders. We need to let Viva Cundliffe and a new team lead a milestone based launch of oxygen ionization, direct ozone repair, methane oxidation, and cooling in logical science based steps, which should reverse some of the damage done and recover the natural system with full public knowledge and oversight. Follow GC Green Carbon on twitter and youtube.

 

 

holistic oxygen chemistry around methane and ice

We have new friends over on twitter @GCGreenCarbon asking for more about oxygen and how it helps the climate stabilize into the Goldilocks zone.
Let’s just touch on Methane right now, as it is releasing very rapidly from the permafrost.
Put your chemist hat on.
net: CH4 + 6O=  CO2 + 2H2O the H is removed by one OH at a time and C is oxidized to CO and then CO2.
In this graph: https://youtu.be/Eg7p9BpOUBw?t=426  Methane could well be causing this paired trajectory by the normal order of the above reaction from left to right, which is chemically correct and not favored in the reverse direction in the atmosphere. Then a warming trend would have both the reactants and the products increasing because of physical retention of heat by methane and water, CO2 lastly. Ozone loss with respect to oxidation of methane which increases solar insolation, more water product retaining more heat, and separately sun cycle activity are the other drivers. This may clear up that controversy at least somewhat.
CO2 will then follow the below trajectory as well, but the reaction order is still as described, left to right. Methane is more volatile than CO2 and fortunately subject to oxidation which CO2 is not, thus the flux pattern is driven y methane and CO2 just follows suit as the product. The product water will trend downward in altitude and will trap heat as is is mixing with oxidants which are infinitely soluble in it, and removing dusts from space above and activities below known as wet/dry deposition.

Inline image 1

This graph shows that Methane and the precessional cycle of the Earth are related as one is completed, the high CH4 point may be due to the angle aspect change with respect to the arctic or the uncovered ocean as a heat sink that when warmed releases more methane than at other points in the precession cycle. Each period can be a little inconsistent and have a deviated trajectory on the gases depending upon cosmic ray (very important), biogenic, volcanic and solar events/processes.(my postulation). (Also anthropogenic issues will be discussed in a new post).
The Sun’s heat can coax more methane from the Earth, depending on its intensity and the thickness of the ozone layer. we are at this point presently likely.
The OH radicals at the ice surface of any ice/snow fields.
Snow and ice is a superb reservoir that helps control methane. Once water and O2 are cleaved in the clean air with almost 2x the solar radiation, a down welling and an upwelling reflection of it, one would achieve good production of O and OH radicals. The O is able to enter water and nucleophilically abstract a hydrogen of water and then produce 2OH*. This doubling of this species this way is very providential. Likely why snowier climates produces/promotes longevity in a lot of oxygen using organisms including humans. The pH of O’C  water is 7.47, the highest self ionized pH, so this will also reside around the ice and promote more OH availability, while helping to lower the cp-(heat capacity). In the Chapman cycle, the OH is a scavenger of Ozone, the poles have more OH in proximity to the ozone column and thus mathematically would show the thinning first when the ozone goes into a depletion cycle.
I would just ask that you await one more graphic which  would like to show you the precipitation event using geometry and water properties, and touch on how the past and present Refrigerant gases, chains of hydrocarbons, BC,  artificial aerosol fluxes (levels) and warming (from the sun, methane, ozone holes and water vapor) inhibit it.
Viva Cundliffe, Phd abd
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Preview YouTube video Expert explains link between Weather and Climate Change (March 2017)

Expert explains link between Weather and Climate Change (March 2017)