In their perspective paper, Rockström and his team corroborated existing literature on various natural feedback processes and concluded that many of them can serve as “tipping elements.” When one tips, many of the others follow.

Nature has feedback mechanisms, such as a rainforest’s capability to create its own humidity and rain, that keep ecosystems in equilibrium. If the rainforest is subject to increasing warming and deforestation, however, the mechanism slowly gets weaker, Rockström said.

“When it crosses a tipping point, the feedback mechanism changes direction,” Rockström said, and the rainforest morphs from a moisture engine into a self-dryer. Eventually, the rainforest turns into a savanna and, in the process, releases carbon, he said.

This, in turn, can become part of a cascade that would influence other processes around the world, such as ocean circulation and El Niño events. Other tipping points include the thawing of permafrost, loss of Arctic summer sea ice and the loss of coral reefs.”

If we oxidize off all the greenhouse gases except CO2 at the level of the Ozone layer, using oxygen, we may remove our problem, in the Ordovician ice age this happened. The Ordovician period had 14 x the CO2 levels of present day, and yet, there was glaciation. The other greenhouse gases were removed and the Sun was at a solar minimum. We put so much CO2 into the air, and it is only really removed by plants, but it is a relatively weak greenhouse gas compared to others. It may not hold all of our needed heat in if it is the only greenhouse gas in the atmosphere-this is the potential lesson of the Ordovician period. We have too many oxidizable major greenhouse gases in the atmosphere and we need to remove a large portion of them scientifically and the only relatively fast and very safe method is using an oxygen airlift technique.


Snowball Earth in 2018 REVISION 1


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